Adrenomedullin prevents sex-dependent impairment of autoregulation during hypotension after piglet brain injury through inhibition of ERK MAPK upregulation

William M. Armstead, J. Willis Kiessling, Khalil Bdeir, W. Andrew Kofke, Monica S. Vavilala

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37 Scopus citations

Abstract

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) adrenomedullin (ADM) levels are increased in female, but remain unchanged in male, piglets after fluid percussion injury (FPI) of the brain. Subthreshold vascular concentrations of ADM restore impaired hypotensive pial artery dilation after FPI more in males than females. Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is upregulated and contributes to reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) after FPI. We hypothesized that ADM prevents sex-dependent impairment of autoregulation during hypotension after FPI through inhibition of ERK MAPK upregulation. FPI increased ERK MAPK more in males than in females. CBF was unchanged during hypotension in sham animals, was reduced more in males than in females after FPI during normotension, and was further reduced in males than in females during hypotension and after FPI. ADM and the ERK MAPK antagonist U 0126 prevented reductions in CBF during hypotension and FPI more in males than in females. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) blood flow velocity was unchanged during hypotension in sham animals, was decreased during hypotension and FPI in male but not in female pigs, and was ameliorated by ADM. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was increased after FPI more in male than in female animals. ADM blunted elevated ICP during FPI and hypotension in males, but not in females. ADM prevented reductions in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) during FPI and hypotension in males but not in females. The calculated autoregulatory index was unchanged during hypotension in sham animals, but was reduced more in males than females during hypotension and FPI. ADM prevented reductions in autoregulation during hypotension and FPI more in males than females. These data indicate that ADM prevented loss of cerebral autoregulation after FPI in a sex-dependent and ERK MAPK-dependent manner.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)391-402
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Volume27
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology

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