Industrial art education entered nineteenth century Massachusetts schools as an educational reform, but was not completely successful for a variety of reasons. Key factors contributing to this failure included, first, conflicting rationales used in advocating art education. Second, discrepancies between authoritative taste and early consumer choice in art reproductions threatened the power of reformers, notably Walter Smith. Third, differing assumptions about art among art specialists and classroom teachers, compounded by growing distinctions between men's and women's sphere of action, made it difficult for teachers to fully participate in the reform process. Late twentieth century reform policies may also fail without recognition of multiple justifications, with over-reliance on top-down expertise, or with lack of attention to teachers' beliefs and needs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Visual Arts and Performing Arts
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)