Aflatoxin, fumonisin and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in calves and the effectiveness of celmanax®/dairyman's choice™ applications to eliminate morbidity and mortality losses

Danica Baines, Mark Sumarah, Gretchen Anna Kuldau, Jean Juba, Alberto Mazza, Luke Masson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mycotoxin mixtures are associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in mature cattle. STEC are considered commensal bacteria in mature cattle suggesting that mycotoxins provide a mechanism that converts this bacterium to an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we assessed the mycotoxin content of hemorrhaged mucosa in dairy calves during natural disease outbreaks, compared the virulence genes of the STECs, evaluated the effect of the mucal mycotoxins on STEC toxin expression and evaluated a Celmanax®/Dairyman's Choice™ application to alleviate disease. As for human infections, the OI-122 encoded nleB gene was common to STEC genotypes eliciting serious disease. Low levels of aflatoxin (1-3 ppb) and fumonisin (50-350 ppb) were detected in the hemorrhaged mucosa. Growth of the STECs with the mycotoxins altered the secreted protein concentration with a corresponding increase in cytotoxicity. Changes in intracellular calcium indicated that the mycotoxins increased enterotoxin and pore-forming toxin activity. A prebiotic/probiotic application eliminated the morbidity and mortality losses associated with the STEC infections. Our study demonstrates: the same STEC disease complex exists for immature and mature cattle; the significance of the OI-122 pathogenicity island to virulence; the significance of mycotoxins to STEC toxin activity; and, finally, provides further evidence that prebiotic/probiotic applications alleviate STEC shedding and mycotoxin/STEC interactions that lead to disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1872-1895
Number of pages24
JournalToxins
Volume5
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

Fingerprint

Shiga Toxin
Fumonisins
Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli Infections
Aflatoxins
Mycotoxins
Escherichia coli
Morbidity
Mortality
Prebiotics
Probiotics
Bacteria
Genes
Virulence
Mucous Membrane
Genomic Islands
Dairies
Enterotoxins
Pathogens
Cytotoxicity

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

@article{56f9798759e74bbc9ca5ac25def74ded,
title = "Aflatoxin, fumonisin and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in calves and the effectiveness of celmanax{\circledR}/dairyman's choice™ applications to eliminate morbidity and mortality losses",
abstract = "Mycotoxin mixtures are associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in mature cattle. STEC are considered commensal bacteria in mature cattle suggesting that mycotoxins provide a mechanism that converts this bacterium to an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we assessed the mycotoxin content of hemorrhaged mucosa in dairy calves during natural disease outbreaks, compared the virulence genes of the STECs, evaluated the effect of the mucal mycotoxins on STEC toxin expression and evaluated a Celmanax{\circledR}/Dairyman's Choice™ application to alleviate disease. As for human infections, the OI-122 encoded nleB gene was common to STEC genotypes eliciting serious disease. Low levels of aflatoxin (1-3 ppb) and fumonisin (50-350 ppb) were detected in the hemorrhaged mucosa. Growth of the STECs with the mycotoxins altered the secreted protein concentration with a corresponding increase in cytotoxicity. Changes in intracellular calcium indicated that the mycotoxins increased enterotoxin and pore-forming toxin activity. A prebiotic/probiotic application eliminated the morbidity and mortality losses associated with the STEC infections. Our study demonstrates: the same STEC disease complex exists for immature and mature cattle; the significance of the OI-122 pathogenicity island to virulence; the significance of mycotoxins to STEC toxin activity; and, finally, provides further evidence that prebiotic/probiotic applications alleviate STEC shedding and mycotoxin/STEC interactions that lead to disease.",
author = "Danica Baines and Mark Sumarah and Kuldau, {Gretchen Anna} and Jean Juba and Alberto Mazza and Luke Masson",
year = "2013",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/toxins5101872",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "5",
pages = "1872--1895",
journal = "Toxins",
issn = "2072-6651",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "10",

}

Aflatoxin, fumonisin and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in calves and the effectiveness of celmanax®/dairyman's choice™ applications to eliminate morbidity and mortality losses. / Baines, Danica; Sumarah, Mark; Kuldau, Gretchen Anna; Juba, Jean; Mazza, Alberto; Masson, Luke.

In: Toxins, Vol. 5, No. 10, 01.01.2013, p. 1872-1895.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Aflatoxin, fumonisin and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in calves and the effectiveness of celmanax®/dairyman's choice™ applications to eliminate morbidity and mortality losses

AU - Baines, Danica

AU - Sumarah, Mark

AU - Kuldau, Gretchen Anna

AU - Juba, Jean

AU - Mazza, Alberto

AU - Masson, Luke

PY - 2013/1/1

Y1 - 2013/1/1

N2 - Mycotoxin mixtures are associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in mature cattle. STEC are considered commensal bacteria in mature cattle suggesting that mycotoxins provide a mechanism that converts this bacterium to an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we assessed the mycotoxin content of hemorrhaged mucosa in dairy calves during natural disease outbreaks, compared the virulence genes of the STECs, evaluated the effect of the mucal mycotoxins on STEC toxin expression and evaluated a Celmanax®/Dairyman's Choice™ application to alleviate disease. As for human infections, the OI-122 encoded nleB gene was common to STEC genotypes eliciting serious disease. Low levels of aflatoxin (1-3 ppb) and fumonisin (50-350 ppb) were detected in the hemorrhaged mucosa. Growth of the STECs with the mycotoxins altered the secreted protein concentration with a corresponding increase in cytotoxicity. Changes in intracellular calcium indicated that the mycotoxins increased enterotoxin and pore-forming toxin activity. A prebiotic/probiotic application eliminated the morbidity and mortality losses associated with the STEC infections. Our study demonstrates: the same STEC disease complex exists for immature and mature cattle; the significance of the OI-122 pathogenicity island to virulence; the significance of mycotoxins to STEC toxin activity; and, finally, provides further evidence that prebiotic/probiotic applications alleviate STEC shedding and mycotoxin/STEC interactions that lead to disease.

AB - Mycotoxin mixtures are associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in mature cattle. STEC are considered commensal bacteria in mature cattle suggesting that mycotoxins provide a mechanism that converts this bacterium to an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we assessed the mycotoxin content of hemorrhaged mucosa in dairy calves during natural disease outbreaks, compared the virulence genes of the STECs, evaluated the effect of the mucal mycotoxins on STEC toxin expression and evaluated a Celmanax®/Dairyman's Choice™ application to alleviate disease. As for human infections, the OI-122 encoded nleB gene was common to STEC genotypes eliciting serious disease. Low levels of aflatoxin (1-3 ppb) and fumonisin (50-350 ppb) were detected in the hemorrhaged mucosa. Growth of the STECs with the mycotoxins altered the secreted protein concentration with a corresponding increase in cytotoxicity. Changes in intracellular calcium indicated that the mycotoxins increased enterotoxin and pore-forming toxin activity. A prebiotic/probiotic application eliminated the morbidity and mortality losses associated with the STEC infections. Our study demonstrates: the same STEC disease complex exists for immature and mature cattle; the significance of the OI-122 pathogenicity island to virulence; the significance of mycotoxins to STEC toxin activity; and, finally, provides further evidence that prebiotic/probiotic applications alleviate STEC shedding and mycotoxin/STEC interactions that lead to disease.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84893598597&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84893598597&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/toxins5101872

DO - 10.3390/toxins5101872

M3 - Article

C2 - 24152990

AN - SCOPUS:84893598597

VL - 5

SP - 1872

EP - 1895

JO - Toxins

JF - Toxins

SN - 2072-6651

IS - 10

ER -