Age and hypohydration independently influence the peripheral vascular response to heat stress

William Lawrence Kenney, Jr., C. G. Tankersley, D. L. Newswanger, D. E. Hyde, S. M. Puhl, N. L. Turner

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Abstract

Seven young (Y, 22-28 yr) and seven middle-aged (MA, 49-60 yr) normotensive men of similar body size, fatness, and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2(max)) were exposed to a heat challenge in an environmental chamber (48°C, 15% relative humidity). Tests were performed in two hydration states: hydrated (H, 25 ml water/kg body wt 1 h before the test, 2.5 h before exercise) and hypohydrated (Hypo, after 18-20 h of water deprivation). Each test began with a 90-min rest period during which the transiently increased plasma volume and decreased osmolality after drinking in the H condition returned to base line. This period was followed by 30 min of cycle exercise at a mean intensity of 43% V̇O2(max) and a 60-min resting recovery period with water ad libitum. Although prior drinking caused no sustained changes in plasma osmolality, Hypo increased plasma osmolality by 7-10 mosmol/kg in both groups. There were no significant age differences in water intake, urine output or osmolality, overall change in body weight, or sweating rate. In the H state, the percent change in plasma volume was less (P < 0.01) during exercise for the Y group (-5.9 ± 0.7%) than for the MA group (-9.4 ± 0.6%). Esophageal temperature (T(es)) was higher in the Hypo condition for both groups with no age-related differences. Throughout the 3-h period, mean skin temperature was higher in the Y group and significantly so (P < 0.05) in the Hypo condition. During exercise, forearm blood flow (FBF) was significantly (i.e., 50-60%) lower and mean arterial pressure was significantly (15-20 mmHg) higher in the MA group in both hydration states, yielding an elevated forearm vascular resistance compared with the Y group. Furthermore, there was no interaction between age and hydration state in these peripheral vascular responses. Estimated core-to-skin heat conductance was ~ 50% lower in the Hypo condition but was not significantly different between age groups because the higher FBF of the Y group offset their lower core-to-skin temperature gradient (thus accounting for the similar ΔT(es) in both age groups). It was concluded that age-related alterations in the peripheral circulation limit vasodilation and maintain higher arterial pressures during exercise in a warm environment. These differences are not a function of age-related differences in cardiorespiratory fitness or hydration state but appear to be a primary consequence of the aging process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1902-1908
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of applied physiology
Volume68
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jan 1 1990

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Heat-Shock Response
Blood Vessels
Osmolar Concentration
Exercise
Forearm
Drinking
Skin Temperature
Plasma Volume
Arterial Pressure
Age Groups
Hot Temperature
Water Deprivation
Body Weight Changes
Sweating
Body Water
Body Size
Humidity
Vasodilation
Vascular Resistance
Urine

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Kenney, Jr., W. L., Tankersley, C. G., Newswanger, D. L., Hyde, D. E., Puhl, S. M., & Turner, N. L. (1990). Age and hypohydration independently influence the peripheral vascular response to heat stress. Journal of applied physiology, 68(5), 1902-1908.
Kenney, Jr., William Lawrence ; Tankersley, C. G. ; Newswanger, D. L. ; Hyde, D. E. ; Puhl, S. M. ; Turner, N. L. / Age and hypohydration independently influence the peripheral vascular response to heat stress. In: Journal of applied physiology. 1990 ; Vol. 68, No. 5. pp. 1902-1908.
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abstract = "Seven young (Y, 22-28 yr) and seven middle-aged (MA, 49-60 yr) normotensive men of similar body size, fatness, and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2(max)) were exposed to a heat challenge in an environmental chamber (48°C, 15{\%} relative humidity). Tests were performed in two hydration states: hydrated (H, 25 ml water/kg body wt 1 h before the test, 2.5 h before exercise) and hypohydrated (Hypo, after 18-20 h of water deprivation). Each test began with a 90-min rest period during which the transiently increased plasma volume and decreased osmolality after drinking in the H condition returned to base line. This period was followed by 30 min of cycle exercise at a mean intensity of 43{\%} V̇O2(max) and a 60-min resting recovery period with water ad libitum. Although prior drinking caused no sustained changes in plasma osmolality, Hypo increased plasma osmolality by 7-10 mosmol/kg in both groups. There were no significant age differences in water intake, urine output or osmolality, overall change in body weight, or sweating rate. In the H state, the percent change in plasma volume was less (P < 0.01) during exercise for the Y group (-5.9 ± 0.7{\%}) than for the MA group (-9.4 ± 0.6{\%}). Esophageal temperature (T(es)) was higher in the Hypo condition for both groups with no age-related differences. Throughout the 3-h period, mean skin temperature was higher in the Y group and significantly so (P < 0.05) in the Hypo condition. During exercise, forearm blood flow (FBF) was significantly (i.e., 50-60{\%}) lower and mean arterial pressure was significantly (15-20 mmHg) higher in the MA group in both hydration states, yielding an elevated forearm vascular resistance compared with the Y group. Furthermore, there was no interaction between age and hydration state in these peripheral vascular responses. Estimated core-to-skin heat conductance was ~ 50{\%} lower in the Hypo condition but was not significantly different between age groups because the higher FBF of the Y group offset their lower core-to-skin temperature gradient (thus accounting for the similar ΔT(es) in both age groups). It was concluded that age-related alterations in the peripheral circulation limit vasodilation and maintain higher arterial pressures during exercise in a warm environment. These differences are not a function of age-related differences in cardiorespiratory fitness or hydration state but appear to be a primary consequence of the aging process.",
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Kenney, Jr., WL, Tankersley, CG, Newswanger, DL, Hyde, DE, Puhl, SM & Turner, NL 1990, 'Age and hypohydration independently influence the peripheral vascular response to heat stress', Journal of applied physiology, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 1902-1908.

Age and hypohydration independently influence the peripheral vascular response to heat stress. / Kenney, Jr., William Lawrence; Tankersley, C. G.; Newswanger, D. L.; Hyde, D. E.; Puhl, S. M.; Turner, N. L.

In: Journal of applied physiology, Vol. 68, No. 5, 01.01.1990, p. 1902-1908.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Age and hypohydration independently influence the peripheral vascular response to heat stress

AU - Kenney, Jr., William Lawrence

AU - Tankersley, C. G.

AU - Newswanger, D. L.

AU - Hyde, D. E.

AU - Puhl, S. M.

AU - Turner, N. L.

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N2 - Seven young (Y, 22-28 yr) and seven middle-aged (MA, 49-60 yr) normotensive men of similar body size, fatness, and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2(max)) were exposed to a heat challenge in an environmental chamber (48°C, 15% relative humidity). Tests were performed in two hydration states: hydrated (H, 25 ml water/kg body wt 1 h before the test, 2.5 h before exercise) and hypohydrated (Hypo, after 18-20 h of water deprivation). Each test began with a 90-min rest period during which the transiently increased plasma volume and decreased osmolality after drinking in the H condition returned to base line. This period was followed by 30 min of cycle exercise at a mean intensity of 43% V̇O2(max) and a 60-min resting recovery period with water ad libitum. Although prior drinking caused no sustained changes in plasma osmolality, Hypo increased plasma osmolality by 7-10 mosmol/kg in both groups. There were no significant age differences in water intake, urine output or osmolality, overall change in body weight, or sweating rate. In the H state, the percent change in plasma volume was less (P < 0.01) during exercise for the Y group (-5.9 ± 0.7%) than for the MA group (-9.4 ± 0.6%). Esophageal temperature (T(es)) was higher in the Hypo condition for both groups with no age-related differences. Throughout the 3-h period, mean skin temperature was higher in the Y group and significantly so (P < 0.05) in the Hypo condition. During exercise, forearm blood flow (FBF) was significantly (i.e., 50-60%) lower and mean arterial pressure was significantly (15-20 mmHg) higher in the MA group in both hydration states, yielding an elevated forearm vascular resistance compared with the Y group. Furthermore, there was no interaction between age and hydration state in these peripheral vascular responses. Estimated core-to-skin heat conductance was ~ 50% lower in the Hypo condition but was not significantly different between age groups because the higher FBF of the Y group offset their lower core-to-skin temperature gradient (thus accounting for the similar ΔT(es) in both age groups). It was concluded that age-related alterations in the peripheral circulation limit vasodilation and maintain higher arterial pressures during exercise in a warm environment. These differences are not a function of age-related differences in cardiorespiratory fitness or hydration state but appear to be a primary consequence of the aging process.

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Kenney, Jr. WL, Tankersley CG, Newswanger DL, Hyde DE, Puhl SM, Turner NL. Age and hypohydration independently influence the peripheral vascular response to heat stress. Journal of applied physiology. 1990 Jan 1;68(5):1902-1908.