Air turbulence characteristics at multiple sites in and above the Amazon rainforest canopy

Raoni A. Santana, Cléo Q. Dias-Júnior, Júlio Tóta da Silva, Jose Fuentes, Roseilson Souza do Vale, Eliane Gomes Alves, Rosa Maria N. dos Santos, Antônio O. Manzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Atmospheric turbulence characteristics within and above rain forest canopies are investigated at several sites located in the Amazon region of Brazil. Turbulence data provided by bi- and three-dimensional sonic anemometers, which were deployed at heights ranging from near the forest floor to about 80 m, are analyzed to describe the principal features of atmospheric turbulence, sensible heat flux (H), and components of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget equation. The analyses focused on weak (WW) and strong (SW) wind conditions to achieve the research objectives of evaluating the turbulence structure above and below the rain forest canopy and estimating the degree of coupling between air layers above the forest and deep in the canopy. Turbulence statistical moments show that atmospheric eddies, generated above the canopy, hardly penetrate the region below 0.5h (h is the canopy height). Forest-atmosphere exchanges of heat differ depending on the observed wind regimes. Sensible heat fluxes decrease with canopy depth for SW conditions and are approximately constant with the height for WW above the canopy. Sensible heat flux profiles reveal a transition layer (around 0.6h) which sometimes exchanges heat with the upper and sometimes with the lower forest canopy, depending on time of day and weather conditions. TKE balance results show that during the daytime period in SW conditions the shear production is at least an order of magnitude greater than the buoyancy above the forest canopy. This turbulence, however, is practically all dissipated in the region above 0.5h. Thus, the air layer from the soil surface to 0.5h is largely decoupled from the upper part of the forest canopy. This feature of having the bottom of the canopy mostly decoupled from the air aloft in the dense and tall rain forest can exert control on the residence times and turbulent transport of plant-emitted gases out of the forest canopy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)41-54
Number of pages14
JournalAgricultural and Forest Meteorology
Volume260-261
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 15 2018

Fingerprint

forest canopy
Amazonia
rainforest
turbulence
canopy
air
sensible heat flux
rain forests
heat
heat transfer
kinetic energy
anemometers
kinetics
anemometer
energy budget
forest floor
forest litter
energy balance
buoyancy
shears

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Forestry
  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

Santana, R. A., Dias-Júnior, C. Q., da Silva, J. T., Fuentes, J., do Vale, R. S., Alves, E. G., ... Manzi, A. O. (2018). Air turbulence characteristics at multiple sites in and above the Amazon rainforest canopy. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 260-261, 41-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.05.027
Santana, Raoni A. ; Dias-Júnior, Cléo Q. ; da Silva, Júlio Tóta ; Fuentes, Jose ; do Vale, Roseilson Souza ; Alves, Eliane Gomes ; dos Santos, Rosa Maria N. ; Manzi, Antônio O. / Air turbulence characteristics at multiple sites in and above the Amazon rainforest canopy. In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2018 ; Vol. 260-261. pp. 41-54.
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Santana, RA, Dias-Júnior, CQ, da Silva, JT, Fuentes, J, do Vale, RS, Alves, EG, dos Santos, RMN & Manzi, AO 2018, 'Air turbulence characteristics at multiple sites in and above the Amazon rainforest canopy', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 260-261, pp. 41-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.05.027

Air turbulence characteristics at multiple sites in and above the Amazon rainforest canopy. / Santana, Raoni A.; Dias-Júnior, Cléo Q.; da Silva, Júlio Tóta; Fuentes, Jose; do Vale, Roseilson Souza; Alves, Eliane Gomes; dos Santos, Rosa Maria N.; Manzi, Antônio O.

In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 260-261, 15.10.2018, p. 41-54.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Air turbulence characteristics at multiple sites in and above the Amazon rainforest canopy

AU - Santana, Raoni A.

AU - Dias-Júnior, Cléo Q.

AU - da Silva, Júlio Tóta

AU - Fuentes, Jose

AU - do Vale, Roseilson Souza

AU - Alves, Eliane Gomes

AU - dos Santos, Rosa Maria N.

AU - Manzi, Antônio O.

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