All-dry resist processes for 193-nm lithography

Mark W. Horn, B. E. Maxwell, Roderick R. Kunz, Michael S. Hibbs, Lynn M. Eriksen, Susan C. Palmateer, A. R. Forte

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

9 Scopus citations


We report on two different all-dry resist schemes for 193-nm lithography, one negative tone and one positive tone. Our negative tone resist is an extension of our initial work on all- dry photoresists. This scheme employs a bilayer in which the imaging layer is formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from tetramethylsilane (TMS) and deposited onto PECVD carbon-based planarizing layers. Figure 1 shows SEMs of dark field and light field octagons patterned in projection on Lincoln Laboratory's 0.5-NA 193-nm Micrascan system. These 0.225- μm and 0.200-μm line and space features were obtained at a dose of approximately 58 mJ/cm2. Dry development of the exposed resist was accomplished using Cl2 chemistry in a helicon high-ion-density etching tool. Pattern transfer was performed in the helicon tool with oxygen-based chemistries. Recently, we have also developed an all-dry positive-tone silylation photoresist. This photoresist is a PECVD carbon-based polymer which is crosslinked by 193-nm exposure, enabling selective silylation similar to that initially reported by Hartney et al., with spin-applied polymers. In those polymers, for example polyvinylphenol, the silylation site concentration is fixed by the hydroxyl groups on the polymer precursors, thus limiting the silicon uptake per unit volume. With PECVD polymers, the total concentration of silylation sites and their depth can be tailored by varying plasma species as a function of time during the deposition. This affords the possibility of greater silicon uptake per unit volume and better depth control of the silylation profile. Figure 2 shows a SEM of 0.5-μm features patterned in plasma deposited silylation resist.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
PublisherSociety of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
Number of pages2
ISBN (Print)0819417866
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995
EventAdvances in Resist Technology and Processing XII - Santa Clara, CA, USA
Duration: Feb 20 1995Feb 22 1995

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


OtherAdvances in Resist Technology and Processing XII
CitySanta Clara, CA, USA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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