We have reported previously that amiodarone interacts with muscarinic receptors via a novel allosteric site. This study presents mechanistic details on the nature of that interaction. Amiodarone enhanced the maximal level of agonist-stimulated release of arachidonic acid (AA) from Chinese hamster ovary cells that expressed M3 muscarinic receptors; this enhancement was observed for acetylcholine and for the partial agonist pilocarpine. A similar effect of amiodarone was observed when pilocarpine was used to stimulate inositol phosphate (IP) metabolism, but not when acetylcholine was used. Subsequent studies showed that the IP response exhibited a much larger receptor reserve than the AA response, and reduction of that reserve by receptor alkylation unmasked amiodarone's enhancement of the maximal IP response to acetylcholine. Modulating the receptor reserve also revealed acetylcholine's greater affinity (KA) for the conformation of the receptor that mediates the AA response. The amiodarone analog N-ethylamiodarone (NEA) did not alter maximal agonist response but merely reduced agonist potency (that is, it appeared to be an antagonist). However, the action of NEA could be clearly distinguished from the action of the orthosteric antagonist NMS. Demonstration of this point was facilitated by an elaboration of Hall's allosteric two-state model; this new model represents a system composed of two ligands that compete with each other at the orthosteric site and two ligands that compete with each other at the allosteric site. In conclusion, amiodarone competes with NEA at a novel, extracellular, allosteric site to enhance the maximal stimulation evoked by acetylcholine and pilocarpine in two different responses.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine