Amended Safety Assessment of Formaldehyde and Methylene Glycol as Used in Cosmetics

Ivan J. Boyer, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F. Bergfeld, Donald V. Belsito, Ronald A. Hill, Curtis D. Klaassen, Daniel C. Liebler, James G. Marks, Ronald C. Shank, Thomas J. Slaga, Paul W. Snyder, F. Alan Andersen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Formaldehyde and methylene glycol may be used safely in cosmetics if established limits are not exceeded and are safe for use in nail hardeners in the present practices of use and concentration, which include instructions to avoid skin contact. In hair-smoothing products, however, in the present practices of use and concentration, formaldehyde and methylene glycol are unsafe. Methylene glycol is continuously converted to formaldehyde, and vice versa, even at equilibrium, which can be easily shifted by heating, drying, and other conditions to increase the amount of formaldehyde. This rapid, reversible formaldehyde/methylene glycol equilibrium is distinguished from the slow, irreversible release of formaldehyde resulting from the so-called formaldehyde releaser preservatives, which are not addressed in this safety assessment (formaldehyde releasers may continue to be safely used in cosmetics at the levels established in their individual Cosmetic Ingredient Review safety assessments).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5S-32S
JournalInternational journal of toxicology
Volume32
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2013

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Cosmetics
Formaldehyde
Safety
Nails
methylene glycol
Hair
Heating
Skin
Drying

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Boyer, I. J., Heldreth, B., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Hill, R. A., Klaassen, C. D., ... Andersen, F. A. (2013). Amended Safety Assessment of Formaldehyde and Methylene Glycol as Used in Cosmetics. International journal of toxicology, 32, 5S-32S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581813511831
Boyer, Ivan J. ; Heldreth, Bart ; Bergfeld, Wilma F. ; Belsito, Donald V. ; Hill, Ronald A. ; Klaassen, Curtis D. ; Liebler, Daniel C. ; Marks, James G. ; Shank, Ronald C. ; Slaga, Thomas J. ; Snyder, Paul W. ; Andersen, F. Alan. / Amended Safety Assessment of Formaldehyde and Methylene Glycol as Used in Cosmetics. In: International journal of toxicology. 2013 ; Vol. 32. pp. 5S-32S.
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Boyer, IJ, Heldreth, B, Bergfeld, WF, Belsito, DV, Hill, RA, Klaassen, CD, Liebler, DC, Marks, JG, Shank, RC, Slaga, TJ, Snyder, PW & Andersen, FA 2013, 'Amended Safety Assessment of Formaldehyde and Methylene Glycol as Used in Cosmetics', International journal of toxicology, vol. 32, pp. 5S-32S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581813511831

Amended Safety Assessment of Formaldehyde and Methylene Glycol as Used in Cosmetics. / Boyer, Ivan J.; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F.; Belsito, Donald V.; Hill, Ronald A.; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Marks, James G.; Shank, Ronald C.; Slaga, Thomas J.; Snyder, Paul W.; Andersen, F. Alan.

In: International journal of toxicology, Vol. 32, 11.2013, p. 5S-32S.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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