The aerodynamics of propellers and rotors is especially complicated because of the highly three-dimensional and compressible nature of the flowfield. However, when linearized theory is applicable, the problem is governed by the wave equation, and a numerically efficient integral formulation can be derived. This reduces the problem from one in space to one over a surface. Many such formulations exist in the aeroacoustics literature, but these become singular integral equations if one naively tries to use them to predict surface pressures, i.e., for aerodynamics. The present paper illustrates how one must interpret these equations in order to obtain nonambiguous results. After the regularized form of the integral equation is derived, a method for solving it numerically is described. Numerical results are compared to experimental results for ellipsoids, wings, and rotors, including effects due to lift.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Aerospace Engineering