Currently, the two main techniques for achieving personalization on the Internet involve direct manipulation and software agents. While both direct manipulation and software agents are aimed at permitting end-users to finish tasks rapidly, efficiently, and easily, their methodologies differ The central controversy involving these personalization techniques derives from the amount of control that each grants to - or withholds from - the end-user. Direct manipulation interfaces afford control and predictability to end-users. Alternatively, the use of software agents captures or records user's personalized preferences by employing artificial intelligence techniques. In this empirical study, two end-user Web personalization tools are evaluated. One of them, WebPersonalizer, is an agent-based end-user personalization tool; the other, AntWorld, is a collaborative recommendation tool which provides direct manipulation interfaces. The purpose of this study is to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each opposed technique-direct manipulation and software agents - as a Web personalization assistant. In addition, we suggest the hybrid paradigm for EUP (end-user programming).