Aims and objectives. An integrative literature review was undertaken to determine what type II diabetes prevention programmes have been evaluated, what type of programme is the most effective and how adherent to lifestyle changes adults are after participating in a prevention programme. Background. Type II diabetes is important because the disease is affecting millions of people worldwide. Obesity and sedentary lifestyles are preventable risk factors for type II diabetes, leading many researchers from around the world to examine different programmes that are focussed on prevention of the disease. Design. Integrative literature review. Method. Search of electronic databases. Results. Diet, exercise, counselling and diet plus exercise were the types of prevention programmes, with the diet plus exercise being the most efficacious. Although many studies demonstrated excellent results initially, maintaining the effects of the lifestyle behaviour change proved to be difficult for participants, with only one study demonstrating the persistence of results after six years. Conclusion. Future research should focus on long-term maintenance programmes, rather than just short-term prevention programmes to determine the need for booster interventions or other means to ultimately decrease the incidence of type II diabetes. Relevance to clinical practice. As front-line healthcare providers working across a broad array of settings, nurses are particularly well-suited to play an integral part in future applications of diabetes prevention programmes. Lifestyle interventions are being delivered in a variety of settings and venues such as the workplace, the Internet and places of worship. In addition, at-risk populations also can be targeted, particularly overweight and obese persons, with at least one parent having type II diabetes or persons with gestational diabetes.
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