An Intestinal Microbiota–Farnesoid X Receptor Axis Modulates Metabolic Disease

Frank J. Gonzalez, Changtao Jiang, Andrew D. Patterson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

64 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The gut microbiota is associated with metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, as shown by correlative studies and by transplant of microbiota from obese humans and mice into germ-free mice. Modification of the microbiota by treatment of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice with tempol or antibiotics resulted in decreased adverse metabolic phenotypes. This was owing to lower levels of the genera Lactobacillus and decreased bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. The decreased BSH resulted in increased levels of tauro-β-muricholic acid (MCA), a substrate of BSH and a potent farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonist. Mice lacking expression of FXR in the intestine were resistant to HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, thus confirming that intestinal FXR is involved in the potentiation of metabolic disease. A potent intestinal FXR antagonist, glycine-β-MCA (Gly-MCA), which is resistant to BSH, was developed, which, when administered to HFD-treated mice, mimics the effect of the altered microbiota on HFD-induced metabolic disease. Gly-MCA had similar effects on genetically obese leptin-deficient mice. The decrease in adverse metabolic phenotype by tempol, antibiotics, and Gly-MCA was caused by decreased serum ceramides. Mice lacking FXR in the intestine also have lower serum ceramide levels, and are resistant to HFD-induced metabolic disease, and this was reversed by injection of C16:0 ceramide. In mouse ileum, because of the presence of endogenous FXR agonists produced in the liver, FXR target genes involved in ceramide synthesis are activated and when Gly-MCA is administered they are repressed, which likely accounts for the decrease in serum ceramides. These studies show that ceramides produced in the ileum under control of FXR influence metabolic diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)845-859
Number of pages15
JournalGastroenterology
Volume151
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016

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choloylglycine hydrolase
Metabolic Diseases
Ceramides
High Fat Diet
Microbiota
Glycine
Ileum
Intestines
Insulin Resistance
Obesity
Serum
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Glycine Receptors
Phenotype
Obese Mice
Lactobacillus
Leptin
Transplants
Injections
Genes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Gonzalez, Frank J. ; Jiang, Changtao ; Patterson, Andrew D. / An Intestinal Microbiota–Farnesoid X Receptor Axis Modulates Metabolic Disease. In: Gastroenterology. 2016 ; Vol. 151, No. 5. pp. 845-859.
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An Intestinal Microbiota–Farnesoid X Receptor Axis Modulates Metabolic Disease. / Gonzalez, Frank J.; Jiang, Changtao; Patterson, Andrew D.

In: Gastroenterology, Vol. 151, No. 5, 01.11.2016, p. 845-859.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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N2 - The gut microbiota is associated with metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, as shown by correlative studies and by transplant of microbiota from obese humans and mice into germ-free mice. Modification of the microbiota by treatment of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice with tempol or antibiotics resulted in decreased adverse metabolic phenotypes. This was owing to lower levels of the genera Lactobacillus and decreased bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. The decreased BSH resulted in increased levels of tauro-β-muricholic acid (MCA), a substrate of BSH and a potent farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonist. Mice lacking expression of FXR in the intestine were resistant to HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, thus confirming that intestinal FXR is involved in the potentiation of metabolic disease. A potent intestinal FXR antagonist, glycine-β-MCA (Gly-MCA), which is resistant to BSH, was developed, which, when administered to HFD-treated mice, mimics the effect of the altered microbiota on HFD-induced metabolic disease. Gly-MCA had similar effects on genetically obese leptin-deficient mice. The decrease in adverse metabolic phenotype by tempol, antibiotics, and Gly-MCA was caused by decreased serum ceramides. Mice lacking FXR in the intestine also have lower serum ceramide levels, and are resistant to HFD-induced metabolic disease, and this was reversed by injection of C16:0 ceramide. In mouse ileum, because of the presence of endogenous FXR agonists produced in the liver, FXR target genes involved in ceramide synthesis are activated and when Gly-MCA is administered they are repressed, which likely accounts for the decrease in serum ceramides. These studies show that ceramides produced in the ileum under control of FXR influence metabolic diseases.

AB - The gut microbiota is associated with metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, as shown by correlative studies and by transplant of microbiota from obese humans and mice into germ-free mice. Modification of the microbiota by treatment of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice with tempol or antibiotics resulted in decreased adverse metabolic phenotypes. This was owing to lower levels of the genera Lactobacillus and decreased bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. The decreased BSH resulted in increased levels of tauro-β-muricholic acid (MCA), a substrate of BSH and a potent farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonist. Mice lacking expression of FXR in the intestine were resistant to HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, thus confirming that intestinal FXR is involved in the potentiation of metabolic disease. A potent intestinal FXR antagonist, glycine-β-MCA (Gly-MCA), which is resistant to BSH, was developed, which, when administered to HFD-treated mice, mimics the effect of the altered microbiota on HFD-induced metabolic disease. Gly-MCA had similar effects on genetically obese leptin-deficient mice. The decrease in adverse metabolic phenotype by tempol, antibiotics, and Gly-MCA was caused by decreased serum ceramides. Mice lacking FXR in the intestine also have lower serum ceramide levels, and are resistant to HFD-induced metabolic disease, and this was reversed by injection of C16:0 ceramide. In mouse ileum, because of the presence of endogenous FXR agonists produced in the liver, FXR target genes involved in ceramide synthesis are activated and when Gly-MCA is administered they are repressed, which likely accounts for the decrease in serum ceramides. These studies show that ceramides produced in the ileum under control of FXR influence metabolic diseases.

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