An Investigation of People's Time Orientation, Attitudes, and Behavior Toward Advertising in an International Context

Erdener Kaynak, Ali Kara, Ali Riza Apil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


Past studies have indicated that there are cross-cultural/national differences among people's perception of time and how they use time available for them and what factors affect their time-related purchasing and consumption decisions. It is stated that each culture or subculture could have its own dominant construct of time. The present study examines time use and orientation and time attitudes toward different activities, including advertising in an emerging economy of Georgia. Study results indicate that present orientation and consciousness of future, planning orientation, time saving, realization of present in the light of past, and action orientation are salient factors channeling time orientations of Georgian consumers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)433-452
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Global Marketing
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2011


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Business and International Management
  • Marketing

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