An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR-Cas systems

Kira S. Makarova, Yuri I. Wolf, Omer S. Alkhnbashi, Fabrizio Costa, Shiraz A. Shah, Sita J. Saunders, Rodolphe Barrangou, Stan J.J. Brouns, Emmanuelle Charpentier, Daniel H. Haft, Philippe Horvath, Sylvain Moineau, Francisco J.M. Mojica, Rebecca M. Terns, Michael P. Terns, Malcolm F. White, Alexander F. Yakunin, Roger A. Garrett, John Van Der Oost, Rolf Backofen & 1 others Eugene V. Koonin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

720 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The evolution of CRISPR-cas loci, which encode adaptive immune systems in archaea and bacteria, involves rapid changes, in particular numerous rearrangements of the locus architecture and horizontal transfer of complete loci or individual modules. These dynamics complicate straightforward phylogenetic classification, but here we present an approach combining the analysis of signature protein families and features of the architecture of cas loci that unambiguously partitions most CRISPR-cas loci into distinct classes, types and subtypes. The new classification retains the overall structure of the previous version but is expanded to now encompass two classes, five types and 16 subtypes. The relative stability of the classification suggests that the most prevalent variants of CRISPR-Cas systems are already known. However, the existence of rare, currently unclassifiable variants implies that additional types and subtypes remain to be characterized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)722-736
Number of pages15
JournalNature Reviews Microbiology
Volume13
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015

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CRISPR-Cas Systems
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
Archaea
Immune System
Bacteria
Proteins

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Makarova, K. S., Wolf, Y. I., Alkhnbashi, O. S., Costa, F., Shah, S. A., Saunders, S. J., ... Koonin, E. V. (2015). An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR-Cas systems. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 13(11), 722-736. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro3569
Makarova, Kira S. ; Wolf, Yuri I. ; Alkhnbashi, Omer S. ; Costa, Fabrizio ; Shah, Shiraz A. ; Saunders, Sita J. ; Barrangou, Rodolphe ; Brouns, Stan J.J. ; Charpentier, Emmanuelle ; Haft, Daniel H. ; Horvath, Philippe ; Moineau, Sylvain ; Mojica, Francisco J.M. ; Terns, Rebecca M. ; Terns, Michael P. ; White, Malcolm F. ; Yakunin, Alexander F. ; Garrett, Roger A. ; Van Der Oost, John ; Backofen, Rolf ; Koonin, Eugene V. / An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR-Cas systems. In: Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2015 ; Vol. 13, No. 11. pp. 722-736.
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Makarova, KS, Wolf, YI, Alkhnbashi, OS, Costa, F, Shah, SA, Saunders, SJ, Barrangou, R, Brouns, SJJ, Charpentier, E, Haft, DH, Horvath, P, Moineau, S, Mojica, FJM, Terns, RM, Terns, MP, White, MF, Yakunin, AF, Garrett, RA, Van Der Oost, J, Backofen, R & Koonin, EV 2015, 'An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR-Cas systems', Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 722-736. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro3569

An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR-Cas systems. / Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Alkhnbashi, Omer S.; Costa, Fabrizio; Shah, Shiraz A.; Saunders, Sita J.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Brouns, Stan J.J.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Haft, Daniel H.; Horvath, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain; Mojica, Francisco J.M.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.; White, Malcolm F.; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Garrett, Roger A.; Van Der Oost, John; Backofen, Rolf; Koonin, Eugene V.

In: Nature Reviews Microbiology, Vol. 13, No. 11, 01.11.2015, p. 722-736.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Makarova, Kira S.

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AU - Alkhnbashi, Omer S.

AU - Costa, Fabrizio

AU - Shah, Shiraz A.

AU - Saunders, Sita J.

AU - Barrangou, Rodolphe

AU - Brouns, Stan J.J.

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AU - Haft, Daniel H.

AU - Horvath, Philippe

AU - Moineau, Sylvain

AU - Mojica, Francisco J.M.

AU - Terns, Rebecca M.

AU - Terns, Michael P.

AU - White, Malcolm F.

AU - Yakunin, Alexander F.

AU - Garrett, Roger A.

AU - Van Der Oost, John

AU - Backofen, Rolf

AU - Koonin, Eugene V.

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Makarova KS, Wolf YI, Alkhnbashi OS, Costa F, Shah SA, Saunders SJ et al. An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR-Cas systems. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2015 Nov 1;13(11):722-736. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro3569