Analysis of Cocoa Proanthocyanidins Using Reversed Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Electrochemical Detection: Application to Studies on the Effect of Alkaline Processing

Todd H. Stanley, Andrew T. Smithson, Andrew P. Neilson, Ramaswamy C. Anantheswaran, Joshua D. Lambert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins play a key role in the health beneficial effects of cocoa. Here, we developed a new reversed phased high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method for the analysis of flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins of degree of polymerization (DP) 2-7. We used this method to examine the effect of alkalization on polyphenol composition of cocoa powder. Treatment of cocoa powder with NaOH (final pH 8.0) at 92 °C for up to 1 h increased catechin content by 40%, but reduced epicatechin and proanthocyanidins by 23-66%. Proanthocyanidin loss could be modeled using a two-phase exponential decay model (R2 > 0.7 for epicatchin and proanthocyanidins of odd DP). Alkalization resulted in a significant color change and 20% loss of total polyphenols. The present work demonstrates the first use of HPLC-ECD for the detection of proanthocyanidins up to DP 7 and provides an initial predictive model for the effect of alkali treatment on cocoa polyphenols.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5970-5975
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Volume63
Issue number25
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

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Cocoa
Proanthocyanidins
High performance liquid chromatography
reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography
Reverse-Phase Chromatography
proanthocyanidins
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Polyphenols
Polymerization
Processing
polymerization
cocoa powder
Catechin
alkalinization
polyphenols
Powders
flavanols
high performance liquid chromatography
alkali treatment
Alkalies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

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title = "Analysis of Cocoa Proanthocyanidins Using Reversed Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Electrochemical Detection: Application to Studies on the Effect of Alkaline Processing",
abstract = "Flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins play a key role in the health beneficial effects of cocoa. Here, we developed a new reversed phased high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method for the analysis of flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins of degree of polymerization (DP) 2-7. We used this method to examine the effect of alkalization on polyphenol composition of cocoa powder. Treatment of cocoa powder with NaOH (final pH 8.0) at 92 °C for up to 1 h increased catechin content by 40{\%}, but reduced epicatechin and proanthocyanidins by 23-66{\%}. Proanthocyanidin loss could be modeled using a two-phase exponential decay model (R2 > 0.7 for epicatchin and proanthocyanidins of odd DP). Alkalization resulted in a significant color change and 20{\%} loss of total polyphenols. The present work demonstrates the first use of HPLC-ECD for the detection of proanthocyanidins up to DP 7 and provides an initial predictive model for the effect of alkali treatment on cocoa polyphenols.",
author = "Stanley, {Todd H.} and Smithson, {Andrew T.} and Neilson, {Andrew P.} and Anantheswaran, {Ramaswamy C.} and Lambert, {Joshua D.}",
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T1 - Analysis of Cocoa Proanthocyanidins Using Reversed Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Electrochemical Detection

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AU - Stanley, Todd H.

AU - Smithson, Andrew T.

AU - Neilson, Andrew P.

AU - Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C.

AU - Lambert, Joshua D.

PY - 2015/7/1

Y1 - 2015/7/1

N2 - Flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins play a key role in the health beneficial effects of cocoa. Here, we developed a new reversed phased high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method for the analysis of flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins of degree of polymerization (DP) 2-7. We used this method to examine the effect of alkalization on polyphenol composition of cocoa powder. Treatment of cocoa powder with NaOH (final pH 8.0) at 92 °C for up to 1 h increased catechin content by 40%, but reduced epicatechin and proanthocyanidins by 23-66%. Proanthocyanidin loss could be modeled using a two-phase exponential decay model (R2 > 0.7 for epicatchin and proanthocyanidins of odd DP). Alkalization resulted in a significant color change and 20% loss of total polyphenols. The present work demonstrates the first use of HPLC-ECD for the detection of proanthocyanidins up to DP 7 and provides an initial predictive model for the effect of alkali treatment on cocoa polyphenols.

AB - Flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins play a key role in the health beneficial effects of cocoa. Here, we developed a new reversed phased high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method for the analysis of flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins of degree of polymerization (DP) 2-7. We used this method to examine the effect of alkalization on polyphenol composition of cocoa powder. Treatment of cocoa powder with NaOH (final pH 8.0) at 92 °C for up to 1 h increased catechin content by 40%, but reduced epicatechin and proanthocyanidins by 23-66%. Proanthocyanidin loss could be modeled using a two-phase exponential decay model (R2 > 0.7 for epicatchin and proanthocyanidins of odd DP). Alkalization resulted in a significant color change and 20% loss of total polyphenols. The present work demonstrates the first use of HPLC-ECD for the detection of proanthocyanidins up to DP 7 and provides an initial predictive model for the effect of alkali treatment on cocoa polyphenols.

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