Analysis of RNA Methylation by Phylogenetically Diverse Cfr Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzymes Reveals an Iron-Binding Accessory Domain in a Clostridial Enzyme

James D. Gumkowski, Ryan J. Martinie, Patrick S. Corrigan, Juan Pan, Matthew R. Bauerle, Mohamed Almarei, Squire J. Booker, Alexey Silakov, Carsten Krebs, Amie Kathleen Boal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Cfr is a radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) RNA methylase linked to multidrug antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. It catalyzes a chemically challenging C-C bond-forming reaction to methylate C8 of A2503 (Escherichia coli numbering) of 23S rRNA during ribosome assembly. The cfr gene has been identified as a mobile genetic element in diverse bacteria and in the genome of select Bacillales and Clostridiales species. Despite the importance of Cfr, few representatives have been purified and characterized in vitro. Here we show that Cfr homologues from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Enterococcus faecalis, Paenibacillus lautus, and Clostridioides difficile act as C8 adenine RNA methylases in biochemical assays. C. difficile Cfr contains an additional Cys-rich C-terminal domain that binds a mononuclear Fe2+ ion in a rubredoxin-type Cys4 motif. The C-terminal domain can be truncated with minimal impact on C. difficile Cfr activity, but the rate of turnover is decreased upon disruption of the Fe2+-binding site by Zn2+ substitution or ligand mutation. These findings indicate an important purpose for the observed C-terminal iron in the native fusion protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the C. difficile Cfr Cys-rich domain shows that it is widespread (-1400 homologues) as a stand-alone gene in pathogenic or commensal Bacilli and Clostridia, with >10% encoded adjacent to a predicted radical SAM RNA methylase. Although the domain is not essential for in vitro C. difficile Cfr activity, the genomic co-occurrence and high abundance in the human microbiome suggest a possible functional role for a specialized rubredoxin in certain radical SAM RNA methylases that are relevant to human health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3169-3184
Number of pages16
JournalBiochemistry
Volume58
Issue number29
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 27 2019

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tRNA Methyltransferases
S-Adenosylmethionine
Methylation
Accessories
Rubredoxins
Iron
RNA
Genes
Bacilli
Enzymes
Bacillales
Paenibacillus
Interspersed Repetitive Sequences
Clostridium
Enterococcus faecalis
Microbiota
Multiple Drug Resistance
Pathogens
Adenine
Bioinformatics

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

@article{ca35efea06c4474fab97e7eec01015e5,
title = "Analysis of RNA Methylation by Phylogenetically Diverse Cfr Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzymes Reveals an Iron-Binding Accessory Domain in a Clostridial Enzyme",
abstract = "Cfr is a radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) RNA methylase linked to multidrug antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. It catalyzes a chemically challenging C-C bond-forming reaction to methylate C8 of A2503 (Escherichia coli numbering) of 23S rRNA during ribosome assembly. The cfr gene has been identified as a mobile genetic element in diverse bacteria and in the genome of select Bacillales and Clostridiales species. Despite the importance of Cfr, few representatives have been purified and characterized in vitro. Here we show that Cfr homologues from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Enterococcus faecalis, Paenibacillus lautus, and Clostridioides difficile act as C8 adenine RNA methylases in biochemical assays. C. difficile Cfr contains an additional Cys-rich C-terminal domain that binds a mononuclear Fe2+ ion in a rubredoxin-type Cys4 motif. The C-terminal domain can be truncated with minimal impact on C. difficile Cfr activity, but the rate of turnover is decreased upon disruption of the Fe2+-binding site by Zn2+ substitution or ligand mutation. These findings indicate an important purpose for the observed C-terminal iron in the native fusion protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the C. difficile Cfr Cys-rich domain shows that it is widespread (-1400 homologues) as a stand-alone gene in pathogenic or commensal Bacilli and Clostridia, with >10{\%} encoded adjacent to a predicted radical SAM RNA methylase. Although the domain is not essential for in vitro C. difficile Cfr activity, the genomic co-occurrence and high abundance in the human microbiome suggest a possible functional role for a specialized rubredoxin in certain radical SAM RNA methylases that are relevant to human health.",
author = "Gumkowski, {James D.} and Martinie, {Ryan J.} and Corrigan, {Patrick S.} and Juan Pan and Bauerle, {Matthew R.} and Mohamed Almarei and Booker, {Squire J.} and Alexey Silakov and Carsten Krebs and Boal, {Amie Kathleen}",
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Analysis of RNA Methylation by Phylogenetically Diverse Cfr Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzymes Reveals an Iron-Binding Accessory Domain in a Clostridial Enzyme. / Gumkowski, James D.; Martinie, Ryan J.; Corrigan, Patrick S.; Pan, Juan; Bauerle, Matthew R.; Almarei, Mohamed; Booker, Squire J.; Silakov, Alexey; Krebs, Carsten; Boal, Amie Kathleen.

In: Biochemistry, Vol. 58, No. 29, 27.06.2019, p. 3169-3184.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Analysis of RNA Methylation by Phylogenetically Diverse Cfr Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzymes Reveals an Iron-Binding Accessory Domain in a Clostridial Enzyme

AU - Gumkowski, James D.

AU - Martinie, Ryan J.

AU - Corrigan, Patrick S.

AU - Pan, Juan

AU - Bauerle, Matthew R.

AU - Almarei, Mohamed

AU - Booker, Squire J.

AU - Silakov, Alexey

AU - Krebs, Carsten

AU - Boal, Amie Kathleen

PY - 2019/6/27

Y1 - 2019/6/27

N2 - Cfr is a radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) RNA methylase linked to multidrug antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. It catalyzes a chemically challenging C-C bond-forming reaction to methylate C8 of A2503 (Escherichia coli numbering) of 23S rRNA during ribosome assembly. The cfr gene has been identified as a mobile genetic element in diverse bacteria and in the genome of select Bacillales and Clostridiales species. Despite the importance of Cfr, few representatives have been purified and characterized in vitro. Here we show that Cfr homologues from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Enterococcus faecalis, Paenibacillus lautus, and Clostridioides difficile act as C8 adenine RNA methylases in biochemical assays. C. difficile Cfr contains an additional Cys-rich C-terminal domain that binds a mononuclear Fe2+ ion in a rubredoxin-type Cys4 motif. The C-terminal domain can be truncated with minimal impact on C. difficile Cfr activity, but the rate of turnover is decreased upon disruption of the Fe2+-binding site by Zn2+ substitution or ligand mutation. These findings indicate an important purpose for the observed C-terminal iron in the native fusion protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the C. difficile Cfr Cys-rich domain shows that it is widespread (-1400 homologues) as a stand-alone gene in pathogenic or commensal Bacilli and Clostridia, with >10% encoded adjacent to a predicted radical SAM RNA methylase. Although the domain is not essential for in vitro C. difficile Cfr activity, the genomic co-occurrence and high abundance in the human microbiome suggest a possible functional role for a specialized rubredoxin in certain radical SAM RNA methylases that are relevant to human health.

AB - Cfr is a radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) RNA methylase linked to multidrug antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. It catalyzes a chemically challenging C-C bond-forming reaction to methylate C8 of A2503 (Escherichia coli numbering) of 23S rRNA during ribosome assembly. The cfr gene has been identified as a mobile genetic element in diverse bacteria and in the genome of select Bacillales and Clostridiales species. Despite the importance of Cfr, few representatives have been purified and characterized in vitro. Here we show that Cfr homologues from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Enterococcus faecalis, Paenibacillus lautus, and Clostridioides difficile act as C8 adenine RNA methylases in biochemical assays. C. difficile Cfr contains an additional Cys-rich C-terminal domain that binds a mononuclear Fe2+ ion in a rubredoxin-type Cys4 motif. The C-terminal domain can be truncated with minimal impact on C. difficile Cfr activity, but the rate of turnover is decreased upon disruption of the Fe2+-binding site by Zn2+ substitution or ligand mutation. These findings indicate an important purpose for the observed C-terminal iron in the native fusion protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the C. difficile Cfr Cys-rich domain shows that it is widespread (-1400 homologues) as a stand-alone gene in pathogenic or commensal Bacilli and Clostridia, with >10% encoded adjacent to a predicted radical SAM RNA methylase. Although the domain is not essential for in vitro C. difficile Cfr activity, the genomic co-occurrence and high abundance in the human microbiome suggest a possible functional role for a specialized rubredoxin in certain radical SAM RNA methylases that are relevant to human health.

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