Objective: We examined the role of anger, hostility, and aggression, in addition to depression and stress, in predicting persistent smoking during pregnancy in a low-income sample. Method: The sample consisted of 270 pregnant women (189 smokers, 81 nonsmokers) recruited into a prospective study of prenatal cigarette exposure in the first trimester. Persistent pregnancy smoking was defined as self- reporting daily smoking in at least two trimesters, a positive salivary cotinine level in at least two trimesters, or infant meconium positive for nicotine and/ or its metabolites. Results: Persistent smokers reported higher prenatal stress and negative affect symptoms (depression, anger, hostility, aggression) than nonpersistent smokers or nonsmokers. However, in the context of model testing, maternal anger, hostility, and aggression each accounted for unique variance in persistent smoking, whereas symptoms of depression and stress did not. Conclusions: To date, interventions for pregnant low-income smokers have been largely ineffective. The current results suggest that anger management interventions may be particularly effective for low-income persistent pregnant smokers and may be more likely to prevent relapse than depression-focused interventions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Health(social science)
- Psychiatry and Mental health