Despite decades of research and numerous treatment approaches, hypertension and cardiovascular disease remain leading global public health problems. A major contributor to regulation of blood pressure, and the development of hypertension, is the renin-angiotensin system. Of particular concern, uncontrolled activation of angiotensin II contributes to hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk, with antihypertensive therapies currently available to block the formation and deleterious actions of this hormone. More recently, angiotensin-(1-7) has emerged as a biologically active intermediate of the vasodilatory arm of the renin-angiotensin system. This hormone antagonizes angiotensin II actions as well as offers antihypertensive, antihypertrophic, antiatherogenic, antiarrhythmogenic, antifibrotic and antithrombotic properties. Angiotensin-(1-7) elicits beneficial cardiovascular actions through mas G protein-coupled receptors, which are found in numerous tissues pivotal to control of blood pressure including the brain, heart, kidneys, and vasculature. Despite accumulating evidence for favorable effects of angiotensin-(1-7) in animal models, there is a paucity of clinical studies and pharmacokinetic limitations, thus limiting the development of therapeutic agents to better understand cardiovascular actions of this vasodilatory peptide hormone in humans. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of angiotensin-(1-7) in cardiovascular control, with an emphasis on significant animal, human, and therapeutic research efforts.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine