Anisotropic swelling and fracture of silicon nanowires during lithiation

Xiao Hua Liu, He Zheng, Li Zhong, Shan Huang, Khim Karki, Li Qiang Zhang, Yang Liu, Akihiro Kushima, Wen Tao Liang, Jiang Wei Wang, Jeong Hyun Cho, Eric Epstein, Shadi A. Dayeh, S. Tom Picraux, Ting Zhu, Ju Li, John P. Sullivan, John Cumings, Chunsheng Wang, Scott X. MaoZhi Zhen Ye, Sulin Zhang, Jian Yu Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

465 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report direct observation of an unexpected anisotropic swelling of Si nanowires during lithiation against either a solid electrolyte with a lithium counter-electrode or a liquid electrolyte with a LiCoO2 counter-electrode. Such anisotropic expansion is attributed to the interfacial processes of accommodating large volumetric strains at the lithiation reaction front that depend sensitively on the crystallographic orientation. This anisotropic swelling results in lithiated Si nanowires with a remarkable dumbbell-shaped cross section, which develops due to plastic flow and an ensuing necking instability that is induced by the tensile hoop stress buildup in the lithiated shell. The plasticity-driven morphological instabilities often lead to fracture in lithiated nanowires, now captured in video. These results provide important insight into the battery degradation mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3312-3318
Number of pages7
JournalNano letters
Volume11
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 10 2011

Fingerprint

Silicon
swelling
Nanowires
Swelling
nanowires
counters
silicon
volumetric strain
hoops
Electrodes
electrodes
plastic flow
Solid electrolytes
solid electrolytes
Plastic flow
Lithium
plastic properties
Tensile stress
Electrolytes
Plasticity

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Liu, X. H., Zheng, H., Zhong, L., Huang, S., Karki, K., Zhang, L. Q., ... Huang, J. Y. (2011). Anisotropic swelling and fracture of silicon nanowires during lithiation. Nano letters, 11(8), 3312-3318. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl201684d
Liu, Xiao Hua ; Zheng, He ; Zhong, Li ; Huang, Shan ; Karki, Khim ; Zhang, Li Qiang ; Liu, Yang ; Kushima, Akihiro ; Liang, Wen Tao ; Wang, Jiang Wei ; Cho, Jeong Hyun ; Epstein, Eric ; Dayeh, Shadi A. ; Picraux, S. Tom ; Zhu, Ting ; Li, Ju ; Sullivan, John P. ; Cumings, John ; Wang, Chunsheng ; Mao, Scott X. ; Ye, Zhi Zhen ; Zhang, Sulin ; Huang, Jian Yu. / Anisotropic swelling and fracture of silicon nanowires during lithiation. In: Nano letters. 2011 ; Vol. 11, No. 8. pp. 3312-3318.
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abstract = "We report direct observation of an unexpected anisotropic swelling of Si nanowires during lithiation against either a solid electrolyte with a lithium counter-electrode or a liquid electrolyte with a LiCoO2 counter-electrode. Such anisotropic expansion is attributed to the interfacial processes of accommodating large volumetric strains at the lithiation reaction front that depend sensitively on the crystallographic orientation. This anisotropic swelling results in lithiated Si nanowires with a remarkable dumbbell-shaped cross section, which develops due to plastic flow and an ensuing necking instability that is induced by the tensile hoop stress buildup in the lithiated shell. The plasticity-driven morphological instabilities often lead to fracture in lithiated nanowires, now captured in video. These results provide important insight into the battery degradation mechanisms.",
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Liu, XH, Zheng, H, Zhong, L, Huang, S, Karki, K, Zhang, LQ, Liu, Y, Kushima, A, Liang, WT, Wang, JW, Cho, JH, Epstein, E, Dayeh, SA, Picraux, ST, Zhu, T, Li, J, Sullivan, JP, Cumings, J, Wang, C, Mao, SX, Ye, ZZ, Zhang, S & Huang, JY 2011, 'Anisotropic swelling and fracture of silicon nanowires during lithiation', Nano letters, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 3312-3318. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl201684d

Anisotropic swelling and fracture of silicon nanowires during lithiation. / Liu, Xiao Hua; Zheng, He; Zhong, Li; Huang, Shan; Karki, Khim; Zhang, Li Qiang; Liu, Yang; Kushima, Akihiro; Liang, Wen Tao; Wang, Jiang Wei; Cho, Jeong Hyun; Epstein, Eric; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Picraux, S. Tom; Zhu, Ting; Li, Ju; Sullivan, John P.; Cumings, John; Wang, Chunsheng; Mao, Scott X.; Ye, Zhi Zhen; Zhang, Sulin; Huang, Jian Yu.

In: Nano letters, Vol. 11, No. 8, 10.08.2011, p. 3312-3318.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Anisotropic swelling and fracture of silicon nanowires during lithiation

AU - Liu, Xiao Hua

AU - Zheng, He

AU - Zhong, Li

AU - Huang, Shan

AU - Karki, Khim

AU - Zhang, Li Qiang

AU - Liu, Yang

AU - Kushima, Akihiro

AU - Liang, Wen Tao

AU - Wang, Jiang Wei

AU - Cho, Jeong Hyun

AU - Epstein, Eric

AU - Dayeh, Shadi A.

AU - Picraux, S. Tom

AU - Zhu, Ting

AU - Li, Ju

AU - Sullivan, John P.

AU - Cumings, John

AU - Wang, Chunsheng

AU - Mao, Scott X.

AU - Ye, Zhi Zhen

AU - Zhang, Sulin

AU - Huang, Jian Yu

PY - 2011/8/10

Y1 - 2011/8/10

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AB - We report direct observation of an unexpected anisotropic swelling of Si nanowires during lithiation against either a solid electrolyte with a lithium counter-electrode or a liquid electrolyte with a LiCoO2 counter-electrode. Such anisotropic expansion is attributed to the interfacial processes of accommodating large volumetric strains at the lithiation reaction front that depend sensitively on the crystallographic orientation. This anisotropic swelling results in lithiated Si nanowires with a remarkable dumbbell-shaped cross section, which develops due to plastic flow and an ensuing necking instability that is induced by the tensile hoop stress buildup in the lithiated shell. The plasticity-driven morphological instabilities often lead to fracture in lithiated nanowires, now captured in video. These results provide important insight into the battery degradation mechanisms.

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JO - Nano Letters

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Liu XH, Zheng H, Zhong L, Huang S, Karki K, Zhang LQ et al. Anisotropic swelling and fracture of silicon nanowires during lithiation. Nano letters. 2011 Aug 10;11(8):3312-3318. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl201684d