Anisotropy of wave velocity and attenuation induced by a dynamic uniaxial strain is investigated by dynamic acoustoelastic testing in limestone. Nonlinear resonance spectroscopy is performed simultaneously for comparison. A compressional resonance of the sample at 6.8 kHz is excited to produce a dynamic strain with an amplitude varied from 10 - 7 to 10 - 5. A sequence of ultrasound pulses tracks variations in ultrasonic velocity and attenuation. Variations measured when the ultrasound pulses propagate in the direction of the uniaxial strain are 10 times larger than when the ultrasound propagation occurs perpendicularly. Variations consist of a "fast" variation at 6.8 kHz and an offset. Acoustically induced conditioning is found to reduce wave velocity and enhance attenuation (offset). It also modifies "fast" nonlinear elastodynamics, i.e., wave amplitude dependencies of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation. At the onset of conditioning and beyond, different excitation amplitudes bring the material to non-equilibrium states. After conversion of velocity-strain dynamic relations into elastic modulus-strain dynamic relations and integration with respect to strain, the dynamic stress-strain relation is obtained. Analysis of stress-strain hysteresis shows that hysteretic nonlinear elasticity is not a significant source of the amplitude-dependent dissipation measured by nonlinear resonance spectroscopy. Mechanisms causing conditioning are likely producing amplitude-dependent dissipation as well.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics