Anodic electrodeposition of highly oriented zirconium phosphate and polyaniline-intercalated zirconium phosphate films

Takahiro Takei, Yoji Kobayashi, Hideo Hata, Yoshinori Yonesaki, Nobuhiro Kumada, Nobukazu Kinomura, Thomas E. Mallouk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Films of highly oriented α-zirconium phosphate and polyaniline-intercalated zirconium phosphate with controllable thickness in the micrometer range were grown anodically on Pt electrodes. To optimize the electrodeposition conditions, the exfoliation of α-zirconium phosphate by tetrabutylammonium (TBA) salts was investigated in several nonaqueous solvents. Acetonitrile was found to be the best solvent for making crack-free, oriented films because of its high vapor pressure, low viscosity, and relatively high permittivity. With TBA salts of neutral or weakly acidic anions (TBACl, TBABr, TBAl, TBA(HSO4), or TBA(H2PO4)), full exfoliation did not occur and α-zirconium phosphate and/or polyaniline were deposited as rough films. With basic anions (TBAF or TBAOH), dense, adherent films were obtained. X-ray diffraction patterns of the films showed that they were highly oriented along the stacking axis. The thickness could be controlled, up to about 40 μm, by limiting the time of the electrodeposition reaction. At monomer concentrations below 1.0 × 10-2 mol/dm3, the emeraldine form of the intercalated polymer was obtained. Electrodeposition thus provides a thick film alternative to layer-by-layer assembly for intercalation compounds of α-zirconium phosphate with a conducting polymer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16634-16640
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume128
Issue number51
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 27 2006

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Electroplating
Polyaniline
Zirconium
Electrodeposition
Phosphates
Anions
Polymers
Negative ions
Salts
Vapor Pressure
Intercalation compounds
Conducting polymers
Acetonitrile
Vapor pressure
Thick films
Viscosity
X-Ray Diffraction
Diffraction patterns
Electrodes
Permittivity

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Takei, Takahiro ; Kobayashi, Yoji ; Hata, Hideo ; Yonesaki, Yoshinori ; Kumada, Nobuhiro ; Kinomura, Nobukazu ; Mallouk, Thomas E. / Anodic electrodeposition of highly oriented zirconium phosphate and polyaniline-intercalated zirconium phosphate films. In: Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2006 ; Vol. 128, No. 51. pp. 16634-16640.
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Takei, T, Kobayashi, Y, Hata, H, Yonesaki, Y, Kumada, N, Kinomura, N & Mallouk, TE 2006, 'Anodic electrodeposition of highly oriented zirconium phosphate and polyaniline-intercalated zirconium phosphate films', Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 128, no. 51, pp. 16634-16640. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja065677m

Anodic electrodeposition of highly oriented zirconium phosphate and polyaniline-intercalated zirconium phosphate films. / Takei, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yoji; Hata, Hideo; Yonesaki, Yoshinori; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Kinomura, Nobukazu; Mallouk, Thomas E.

In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 128, No. 51, 27.12.2006, p. 16634-16640.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Anodic electrodeposition of highly oriented zirconium phosphate and polyaniline-intercalated zirconium phosphate films

AU - Takei, Takahiro

AU - Kobayashi, Yoji

AU - Hata, Hideo

AU - Yonesaki, Yoshinori

AU - Kumada, Nobuhiro

AU - Kinomura, Nobukazu

AU - Mallouk, Thomas E.

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AB - Films of highly oriented α-zirconium phosphate and polyaniline-intercalated zirconium phosphate with controllable thickness in the micrometer range were grown anodically on Pt electrodes. To optimize the electrodeposition conditions, the exfoliation of α-zirconium phosphate by tetrabutylammonium (TBA) salts was investigated in several nonaqueous solvents. Acetonitrile was found to be the best solvent for making crack-free, oriented films because of its high vapor pressure, low viscosity, and relatively high permittivity. With TBA salts of neutral or weakly acidic anions (TBACl, TBABr, TBAl, TBA(HSO4), or TBA(H2PO4)), full exfoliation did not occur and α-zirconium phosphate and/or polyaniline were deposited as rough films. With basic anions (TBAF or TBAOH), dense, adherent films were obtained. X-ray diffraction patterns of the films showed that they were highly oriented along the stacking axis. The thickness could be controlled, up to about 40 μm, by limiting the time of the electrodeposition reaction. At monomer concentrations below 1.0 × 10-2 mol/dm3, the emeraldine form of the intercalated polymer was obtained. Electrodeposition thus provides a thick film alternative to layer-by-layer assembly for intercalation compounds of α-zirconium phosphate with a conducting polymer.

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