@inbook{021253205aac4720b49befd3142dbf4e,

title = "Ant system for the k-cardinality tree problem",

abstract = "This paper gives an algorithm for finding the minimum weight tree having k edges in an edge weighted graph. The algorithm combines a search and optimization technique based on pheromone with a weight based greedy local optimization. Experimental results on a large set of problem instances show that this algorithm matches or surpasses other algorithms including an ant colony optimization algorithm, a tabu search algorithm, an evolutionary algorithm and a greedy-based algorithm on all but one of the 138 tested instances.",

author = "Bui, {Thang N.} and Gnanasekaran Sundarraj",

year = "2004",

doi = "10.1007/978-3-540-24854-5_4",

language = "English (US)",

isbn = "3540223444",

series = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)",

publisher = "Springer Verlag",

pages = "36--47",

editor = "Kalyanmoy Deb and Riccardo Poli and Owen Holland and Kalyanmoy Banzhaf and Hans-Georg Beyer and Edmund Burke and Paul Darwen and Dipankar Dasgupta and Dario Floreano and James Foster and Mark Harman and Lanzi, {Pier Luca} and Lee Spector and Tettamanzi, {Andrea G. B.} and Dirk Thierens and Tyrrell, {Andrew M.}",

booktitle = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)",

address = "Germany",

}