Antennas find extensive utilization in communication systems ranging from cellular telephone, television, radio, radar, and numerous other applications. An antenna is designed to launch an electromagnetic signal with desired characteristics; this could be direction of radiation, area of coverage, strength of emission, beamwidth, sidelobe levels, etc. Any metal structure carrying a time varying electrical current will radiate electromagnetic waves as dictated by the well established Maxwell equations. Antennas however are purposefully designed to radiate with certain specified characteristics.
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