Application of electromagnetic force in laser welding

Jun Zhou, H. L. Tsai

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In recent years, lasers have been widely used in the welding processes for automotive, aerospace, electrical and heavy manufacturing industries due to their high power density, small heat-affected zone and high productivity. Especially, with high depth-to-width ratio and high welding efficiency, keyholemode laser welding is more promising compared to the conventional welding processes. However, a number of defects, such as porosity, irregular beads, undercut and humping are frequently observed in laser welds, which deteriorates the strength and quality of the welded parts. In current study, an externally controllable electromagnetic force is introduced into the laser welding process to prevent porosity formation and to control weld bead shape. Numerical models are developed to study the transport phenomena in laser welding and to accurately calculate the current density and magnetic flux fields and the resulting electromagnetic forces in three-dimensional weldments. Effects of the electromagnetic force on metal flow, heat and mass transfer and weld bead shape are investigated. The continuum model is used to handle the entire domain including solid phase, liquid phase and mush zone. The enthalpy method is employed to handle the absorption and release of latent heat during melting and solidification. Inverse Bremsstrahlung (IB) absorption, Fresnel absorption and multiple reflections of laser beam energy at the keyhole walls are considered for the study of laser-plasma interaction. Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique is adopted to calculate the free surface evolution in the computation. As indicated by this study, porosity-free laser welds with desired bead shapes can be achieved with appropriate applications of electromagnetic forces.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHeat Transfer, Fluid Flows, and Thermal Systems
PublisherAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Pages1025-1030
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)0791843025
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007
EventASME 2007 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE 2007 - Seattle, United States
Duration: Nov 11 2007Nov 15 2007

Publication series

NameASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE)
Volume8

Other

OtherASME 2007 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE 2007
CountryUnited States
CitySeattle
Period11/11/0711/15/07

Fingerprint

Laser beam welding
Welds
Welding
Lasers
Porosity
Plasma interactions
Latent heat
Heat affected zone
Magnetic flux
Laser beams
Solidification
Numerical models
Enthalpy
Melting
Current density
Mass transfer
Productivity
Heat transfer
Defects
Fluids

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Zhou, J., & Tsai, H. L. (2007). Application of electromagnetic force in laser welding. In Heat Transfer, Fluid Flows, and Thermal Systems (pp. 1025-1030). (ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE); Vol. 8). American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2007-43479
Zhou, Jun ; Tsai, H. L. / Application of electromagnetic force in laser welding. Heat Transfer, Fluid Flows, and Thermal Systems. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2007. pp. 1025-1030 (ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE)).
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abstract = "In recent years, lasers have been widely used in the welding processes for automotive, aerospace, electrical and heavy manufacturing industries due to their high power density, small heat-affected zone and high productivity. Especially, with high depth-to-width ratio and high welding efficiency, keyholemode laser welding is more promising compared to the conventional welding processes. However, a number of defects, such as porosity, irregular beads, undercut and humping are frequently observed in laser welds, which deteriorates the strength and quality of the welded parts. In current study, an externally controllable electromagnetic force is introduced into the laser welding process to prevent porosity formation and to control weld bead shape. Numerical models are developed to study the transport phenomena in laser welding and to accurately calculate the current density and magnetic flux fields and the resulting electromagnetic forces in three-dimensional weldments. Effects of the electromagnetic force on metal flow, heat and mass transfer and weld bead shape are investigated. The continuum model is used to handle the entire domain including solid phase, liquid phase and mush zone. The enthalpy method is employed to handle the absorption and release of latent heat during melting and solidification. Inverse Bremsstrahlung (IB) absorption, Fresnel absorption and multiple reflections of laser beam energy at the keyhole walls are considered for the study of laser-plasma interaction. Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique is adopted to calculate the free surface evolution in the computation. As indicated by this study, porosity-free laser welds with desired bead shapes can be achieved with appropriate applications of electromagnetic forces.",
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Zhou, J & Tsai, HL 2007, Application of electromagnetic force in laser welding. in Heat Transfer, Fluid Flows, and Thermal Systems. ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), vol. 8, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), pp. 1025-1030, ASME 2007 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE 2007, Seattle, United States, 11/11/07. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2007-43479

Application of electromagnetic force in laser welding. / Zhou, Jun; Tsai, H. L.

Heat Transfer, Fluid Flows, and Thermal Systems. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2007. p. 1025-1030 (ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE); Vol. 8).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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AB - In recent years, lasers have been widely used in the welding processes for automotive, aerospace, electrical and heavy manufacturing industries due to their high power density, small heat-affected zone and high productivity. Especially, with high depth-to-width ratio and high welding efficiency, keyholemode laser welding is more promising compared to the conventional welding processes. However, a number of defects, such as porosity, irregular beads, undercut and humping are frequently observed in laser welds, which deteriorates the strength and quality of the welded parts. In current study, an externally controllable electromagnetic force is introduced into the laser welding process to prevent porosity formation and to control weld bead shape. Numerical models are developed to study the transport phenomena in laser welding and to accurately calculate the current density and magnetic flux fields and the resulting electromagnetic forces in three-dimensional weldments. Effects of the electromagnetic force on metal flow, heat and mass transfer and weld bead shape are investigated. The continuum model is used to handle the entire domain including solid phase, liquid phase and mush zone. The enthalpy method is employed to handle the absorption and release of latent heat during melting and solidification. Inverse Bremsstrahlung (IB) absorption, Fresnel absorption and multiple reflections of laser beam energy at the keyhole walls are considered for the study of laser-plasma interaction. Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique is adopted to calculate the free surface evolution in the computation. As indicated by this study, porosity-free laser welds with desired bead shapes can be achieved with appropriate applications of electromagnetic forces.

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Zhou J, Tsai HL. Application of electromagnetic force in laser welding. In Heat Transfer, Fluid Flows, and Thermal Systems. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). 2007. p. 1025-1030. (ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE)). https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2007-43479