Artificial 'spin ice' in a geometrically frustrated lattice of nanoscale ferromagnetic islands

R. F. Wang, C. Nisoli, R. S. Freitas, J. Li, W. McConville, B. J. Cooley, M. S. Lund, N. Samarth, C. Leighton, V. H. Crespi, P. Schiffer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

478 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Frustration, defined as a competition between interactions such that not all of them can be satisfied, is important in systems ranging from neural networks to structural glasses. Geometrical frustration, which arises from the topology of a well-ordered structure rather than from disorder, has recently become a topic of considerable interest1. In particular, geometrical frustration among spins in magnetic materials can lead to exotic low-temperature states2, including 'spin ice', in which the local moments mimic the frustration of hydrogen ion positions in frozen water3-6. Here we report an artificial geometrically frustrated magnet based on an array of lithographically fabricated single-domain ferromagnetic islands. The islands are arranged such that the dipole interactions create a two-dimensional analogue to spin ice. Images of the magnetic moments of individual elements in this correlated system allow us to study the local accommodation of frustration. We see both ice-like short-range correlations and an absence of long-range correlations, behaviour which is strikingly similar to the low-temperature state of spin ice. These results demonstrate that artificial frustrated magnets can provide an uncharted arena in which the physics of frustration can be directly visualized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)303-306
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume439
Issue number7074
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 19 2006

Fingerprint

Frustration
Ice
Islands
Magnets
Temperature
Physics
Glass
Protons

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Cite this

Wang, R. F., Nisoli, C., Freitas, R. S., Li, J., McConville, W., Cooley, B. J., ... Schiffer, P. (2006). Artificial 'spin ice' in a geometrically frustrated lattice of nanoscale ferromagnetic islands. Nature, 439(7074), 303-306. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04447
Wang, R. F. ; Nisoli, C. ; Freitas, R. S. ; Li, J. ; McConville, W. ; Cooley, B. J. ; Lund, M. S. ; Samarth, N. ; Leighton, C. ; Crespi, V. H. ; Schiffer, P. / Artificial 'spin ice' in a geometrically frustrated lattice of nanoscale ferromagnetic islands. In: Nature. 2006 ; Vol. 439, No. 7074. pp. 303-306.
@article{56e89166c9a042c7b8da76d76cf33ca0,
title = "Artificial 'spin ice' in a geometrically frustrated lattice of nanoscale ferromagnetic islands",
abstract = "Frustration, defined as a competition between interactions such that not all of them can be satisfied, is important in systems ranging from neural networks to structural glasses. Geometrical frustration, which arises from the topology of a well-ordered structure rather than from disorder, has recently become a topic of considerable interest1. In particular, geometrical frustration among spins in magnetic materials can lead to exotic low-temperature states2, including 'spin ice', in which the local moments mimic the frustration of hydrogen ion positions in frozen water3-6. Here we report an artificial geometrically frustrated magnet based on an array of lithographically fabricated single-domain ferromagnetic islands. The islands are arranged such that the dipole interactions create a two-dimensional analogue to spin ice. Images of the magnetic moments of individual elements in this correlated system allow us to study the local accommodation of frustration. We see both ice-like short-range correlations and an absence of long-range correlations, behaviour which is strikingly similar to the low-temperature state of spin ice. These results demonstrate that artificial frustrated magnets can provide an uncharted arena in which the physics of frustration can be directly visualized.",
author = "Wang, {R. F.} and C. Nisoli and Freitas, {R. S.} and J. Li and W. McConville and Cooley, {B. J.} and Lund, {M. S.} and N. Samarth and C. Leighton and Crespi, {V. H.} and P. Schiffer",
year = "2006",
month = "1",
day = "19",
doi = "10.1038/nature04447",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "439",
pages = "303--306",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7074",

}

Wang, RF, Nisoli, C, Freitas, RS, Li, J, McConville, W, Cooley, BJ, Lund, MS, Samarth, N, Leighton, C, Crespi, VH & Schiffer, P 2006, 'Artificial 'spin ice' in a geometrically frustrated lattice of nanoscale ferromagnetic islands', Nature, vol. 439, no. 7074, pp. 303-306. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04447

Artificial 'spin ice' in a geometrically frustrated lattice of nanoscale ferromagnetic islands. / Wang, R. F.; Nisoli, C.; Freitas, R. S.; Li, J.; McConville, W.; Cooley, B. J.; Lund, M. S.; Samarth, N.; Leighton, C.; Crespi, V. H.; Schiffer, P.

In: Nature, Vol. 439, No. 7074, 19.01.2006, p. 303-306.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Artificial 'spin ice' in a geometrically frustrated lattice of nanoscale ferromagnetic islands

AU - Wang, R. F.

AU - Nisoli, C.

AU - Freitas, R. S.

AU - Li, J.

AU - McConville, W.

AU - Cooley, B. J.

AU - Lund, M. S.

AU - Samarth, N.

AU - Leighton, C.

AU - Crespi, V. H.

AU - Schiffer, P.

PY - 2006/1/19

Y1 - 2006/1/19

N2 - Frustration, defined as a competition between interactions such that not all of them can be satisfied, is important in systems ranging from neural networks to structural glasses. Geometrical frustration, which arises from the topology of a well-ordered structure rather than from disorder, has recently become a topic of considerable interest1. In particular, geometrical frustration among spins in magnetic materials can lead to exotic low-temperature states2, including 'spin ice', in which the local moments mimic the frustration of hydrogen ion positions in frozen water3-6. Here we report an artificial geometrically frustrated magnet based on an array of lithographically fabricated single-domain ferromagnetic islands. The islands are arranged such that the dipole interactions create a two-dimensional analogue to spin ice. Images of the magnetic moments of individual elements in this correlated system allow us to study the local accommodation of frustration. We see both ice-like short-range correlations and an absence of long-range correlations, behaviour which is strikingly similar to the low-temperature state of spin ice. These results demonstrate that artificial frustrated magnets can provide an uncharted arena in which the physics of frustration can be directly visualized.

AB - Frustration, defined as a competition between interactions such that not all of them can be satisfied, is important in systems ranging from neural networks to structural glasses. Geometrical frustration, which arises from the topology of a well-ordered structure rather than from disorder, has recently become a topic of considerable interest1. In particular, geometrical frustration among spins in magnetic materials can lead to exotic low-temperature states2, including 'spin ice', in which the local moments mimic the frustration of hydrogen ion positions in frozen water3-6. Here we report an artificial geometrically frustrated magnet based on an array of lithographically fabricated single-domain ferromagnetic islands. The islands are arranged such that the dipole interactions create a two-dimensional analogue to spin ice. Images of the magnetic moments of individual elements in this correlated system allow us to study the local accommodation of frustration. We see both ice-like short-range correlations and an absence of long-range correlations, behaviour which is strikingly similar to the low-temperature state of spin ice. These results demonstrate that artificial frustrated magnets can provide an uncharted arena in which the physics of frustration can be directly visualized.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=31144454793&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=31144454793&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/nature04447

DO - 10.1038/nature04447

M3 - Article

C2 - 16421565

AN - SCOPUS:31144454793

VL - 439

SP - 303

EP - 306

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7074

ER -

Wang RF, Nisoli C, Freitas RS, Li J, McConville W, Cooley BJ et al. Artificial 'spin ice' in a geometrically frustrated lattice of nanoscale ferromagnetic islands. Nature. 2006 Jan 19;439(7074):303-306. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04447