Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U.S. terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations

Jingfeng Xiao, Qianlai Zhuang, Beverly E. Law, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Jiquan Chen, Andrew D. Richardson, Jerry M. Melillo, Kenneth James Davis, David Y. Hollinger, Sonia Wharton, Ram Oren, Asko Noormets, Marc L. Fischer, Shashi B. Verma, David R. Cook, Ge Sun, Steve McNulty, Steven C. Wofsy, Paul V. Bolstad, Sean P. Burns & 21 others Peter S. Curtis, Bert G. Drake, Matthias Falk, David R. Foster, Lianhong Gu, Julian L. Hadley, Gabriel G. Katul, Marcy Litvak, Siyan Ma, Timothy A. Martin, Roser Matamala, Tilden P. Meyers, Russell K. Monson, J. William Munger, Walter C. Oechel, U. Kyaw Tha Paw, Hans Peter Schmid, Russell L. Scott, Gregory Starr, Andrew E. Suyker, Margaret S. Torn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a terrestrial carbon sink in the conterminous U.S. at 0.63pg C yr-1 with the majority of the sink in regions dominated by evergreen and deciduous forests and savannas. This estimate is based on our continuous estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) with high spatial (1km) and temporal (8-day) resolutions derived from NEE measurements from eddy covariance flux towers and wall-to-wall satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the U.S. terrestrial ecosystems could offset a maximum of 40% of the fossil-fuel carbon emissions. Our results show that the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink varied between 0.51 and 0.70 pg C yr-1 over the period 2001-2006. The dominant sources of interannual variation of the carbon sink included extreme climate events and disturbances. Droughts in 2002 and 2006 reduced the U.S. carbon sink by ∼20% relative to a normal year. Disturbances including wildfires and hurricanes reduced carbon uptake or resulted in carbon release at regional scales. Our results provide an alternative, independent, and novel constraint to the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)60-69
Number of pages10
JournalAgricultural and Forest Meteorology
Volume151
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2011

Fingerprint

carbon sink
eddy covariance
flux measurement
terrestrial ecosystem
carbon sinks
ecosystems
carbon
ecosystem
disturbance
hurricanes
moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer
evergreen forest
fossil fuels
carbon emission
wildfires
deciduous forests
wildfire
deciduous forest
carbon cycle
savanna

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Forestry
  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

Xiao, Jingfeng ; Zhuang, Qianlai ; Law, Beverly E. ; Baldocchi, Dennis D. ; Chen, Jiquan ; Richardson, Andrew D. ; Melillo, Jerry M. ; Davis, Kenneth James ; Hollinger, David Y. ; Wharton, Sonia ; Oren, Ram ; Noormets, Asko ; Fischer, Marc L. ; Verma, Shashi B. ; Cook, David R. ; Sun, Ge ; McNulty, Steve ; Wofsy, Steven C. ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Burns, Sean P. ; Curtis, Peter S. ; Drake, Bert G. ; Falk, Matthias ; Foster, David R. ; Gu, Lianhong ; Hadley, Julian L. ; Katul, Gabriel G. ; Litvak, Marcy ; Ma, Siyan ; Martin, Timothy A. ; Matamala, Roser ; Meyers, Tilden P. ; Monson, Russell K. ; Munger, J. William ; Oechel, Walter C. ; Paw, U. Kyaw Tha ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Scott, Russell L. ; Starr, Gregory ; Suyker, Andrew E. ; Torn, Margaret S. / Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U.S. terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations. In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2011 ; Vol. 151, No. 1. pp. 60-69.
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abstract = "More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a terrestrial carbon sink in the conterminous U.S. at 0.63pg C yr-1 with the majority of the sink in regions dominated by evergreen and deciduous forests and savannas. This estimate is based on our continuous estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) with high spatial (1km) and temporal (8-day) resolutions derived from NEE measurements from eddy covariance flux towers and wall-to-wall satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the U.S. terrestrial ecosystems could offset a maximum of 40{\%} of the fossil-fuel carbon emissions. Our results show that the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink varied between 0.51 and 0.70 pg C yr-1 over the period 2001-2006. The dominant sources of interannual variation of the carbon sink included extreme climate events and disturbances. Droughts in 2002 and 2006 reduced the U.S. carbon sink by ∼20{\%} relative to a normal year. Disturbances including wildfires and hurricanes reduced carbon uptake or resulted in carbon release at regional scales. Our results provide an alternative, independent, and novel constraint to the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink.",
author = "Jingfeng Xiao and Qianlai Zhuang and Law, {Beverly E.} and Baldocchi, {Dennis D.} and Jiquan Chen and Richardson, {Andrew D.} and Melillo, {Jerry M.} and Davis, {Kenneth James} and Hollinger, {David Y.} and Sonia Wharton and Ram Oren and Asko Noormets and Fischer, {Marc L.} and Verma, {Shashi B.} and Cook, {David R.} and Ge Sun and Steve McNulty and Wofsy, {Steven C.} and Bolstad, {Paul V.} and Burns, {Sean P.} and Curtis, {Peter S.} and Drake, {Bert G.} and Matthias Falk and Foster, {David R.} and Lianhong Gu and Hadley, {Julian L.} and Katul, {Gabriel G.} and Marcy Litvak and Siyan Ma and Martin, {Timothy A.} and Roser Matamala and Meyers, {Tilden P.} and Monson, {Russell K.} and Munger, {J. William} and Oechel, {Walter C.} and Paw, {U. Kyaw Tha} and Schmid, {Hans Peter} and Scott, {Russell L.} and Gregory Starr and Suyker, {Andrew E.} and Torn, {Margaret S.}",
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Xiao, J, Zhuang, Q, Law, BE, Baldocchi, DD, Chen, J, Richardson, AD, Melillo, JM, Davis, KJ, Hollinger, DY, Wharton, S, Oren, R, Noormets, A, Fischer, ML, Verma, SB, Cook, DR, Sun, G, McNulty, S, Wofsy, SC, Bolstad, PV, Burns, SP, Curtis, PS, Drake, BG, Falk, M, Foster, DR, Gu, L, Hadley, JL, Katul, GG, Litvak, M, Ma, S, Martin, TA, Matamala, R, Meyers, TP, Monson, RK, Munger, JW, Oechel, WC, Paw, UKT, Schmid, HP, Scott, RL, Starr, G, Suyker, AE & Torn, MS 2011, 'Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U.S. terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 60-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.09.002

Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U.S. terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations. / Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Law, Beverly E.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Chen, Jiquan; Richardson, Andrew D.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Davis, Kenneth James; Hollinger, David Y.; Wharton, Sonia; Oren, Ram; Noormets, Asko; Fischer, Marc L.; Verma, Shashi B.; Cook, David R.; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steve; Wofsy, Steven C.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Falk, Matthias; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Litvak, Marcy; Ma, Siyan; Martin, Timothy A.; Matamala, Roser; Meyers, Tilden P.; Monson, Russell K.; Munger, J. William; Oechel, Walter C.; Paw, U. Kyaw Tha; Schmid, Hans Peter; Scott, Russell L.; Starr, Gregory; Suyker, Andrew E.; Torn, Margaret S.

In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 151, No. 1, 15.01.2011, p. 60-69.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U.S. terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations

AU - Xiao, Jingfeng

AU - Zhuang, Qianlai

AU - Law, Beverly E.

AU - Baldocchi, Dennis D.

AU - Chen, Jiquan

AU - Richardson, Andrew D.

AU - Melillo, Jerry M.

AU - Davis, Kenneth James

AU - Hollinger, David Y.

AU - Wharton, Sonia

AU - Oren, Ram

AU - Noormets, Asko

AU - Fischer, Marc L.

AU - Verma, Shashi B.

AU - Cook, David R.

AU - Sun, Ge

AU - McNulty, Steve

AU - Wofsy, Steven C.

AU - Bolstad, Paul V.

AU - Burns, Sean P.

AU - Curtis, Peter S.

AU - Drake, Bert G.

AU - Falk, Matthias

AU - Foster, David R.

AU - Gu, Lianhong

AU - Hadley, Julian L.

AU - Katul, Gabriel G.

AU - Litvak, Marcy

AU - Ma, Siyan

AU - Martin, Timothy A.

AU - Matamala, Roser

AU - Meyers, Tilden P.

AU - Monson, Russell K.

AU - Munger, J. William

AU - Oechel, Walter C.

AU - Paw, U. Kyaw Tha

AU - Schmid, Hans Peter

AU - Scott, Russell L.

AU - Starr, Gregory

AU - Suyker, Andrew E.

AU - Torn, Margaret S.

PY - 2011/1/15

Y1 - 2011/1/15

N2 - More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a terrestrial carbon sink in the conterminous U.S. at 0.63pg C yr-1 with the majority of the sink in regions dominated by evergreen and deciduous forests and savannas. This estimate is based on our continuous estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) with high spatial (1km) and temporal (8-day) resolutions derived from NEE measurements from eddy covariance flux towers and wall-to-wall satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the U.S. terrestrial ecosystems could offset a maximum of 40% of the fossil-fuel carbon emissions. Our results show that the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink varied between 0.51 and 0.70 pg C yr-1 over the period 2001-2006. The dominant sources of interannual variation of the carbon sink included extreme climate events and disturbances. Droughts in 2002 and 2006 reduced the U.S. carbon sink by ∼20% relative to a normal year. Disturbances including wildfires and hurricanes reduced carbon uptake or resulted in carbon release at regional scales. Our results provide an alternative, independent, and novel constraint to the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink.

AB - More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a terrestrial carbon sink in the conterminous U.S. at 0.63pg C yr-1 with the majority of the sink in regions dominated by evergreen and deciduous forests and savannas. This estimate is based on our continuous estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) with high spatial (1km) and temporal (8-day) resolutions derived from NEE measurements from eddy covariance flux towers and wall-to-wall satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the U.S. terrestrial ecosystems could offset a maximum of 40% of the fossil-fuel carbon emissions. Our results show that the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink varied between 0.51 and 0.70 pg C yr-1 over the period 2001-2006. The dominant sources of interannual variation of the carbon sink included extreme climate events and disturbances. Droughts in 2002 and 2006 reduced the U.S. carbon sink by ∼20% relative to a normal year. Disturbances including wildfires and hurricanes reduced carbon uptake or resulted in carbon release at regional scales. Our results provide an alternative, independent, and novel constraint to the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink.

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JF - Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

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