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The importance of visuospatial abilities for verbal number skills in preschool: Adding spatial language to the equation Georges, Carrie ; Cornu, Véronique ; Schiltz, Christine in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2021) Detailed reference viewed: 98 (5 UL)Not all elementary school teachers are scared of math ; Masson, Nicolas ; Georges, Carrie et al in Journal of Numerical Cognition (2021) Detailed reference viewed: 95 (0 UL)A robust electrophysiological marker of spontaneous numerical discrimination Georges, Carrie ; ; Schiltz, Christine in Scientific Reports (2020) Detailed reference viewed: 130 (0 UL)Proportional reasoning in the bounded but not direct estimation in the unbounded number line task underlies the relation to arithmetics in second to fourth graders Georges, Carrie ; Schiltz, Christine Poster (2019, September) Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 UL)A minority pulls the sample mean: on the individual prevalence of robust group-level cognitive phenomena - the instance of the SNARC effect ; ; Georges, Carrie et al Presentation (2019, January) Detailed reference viewed: 48 (1 UL)Spatial Skills First: The Importance of Mental Rotation for Arithmetic Skill Acquisition Georges, Carrie ; Cornu, Véronique ; Schiltz, Christine in Journal of Numerical Cognition (2019) Detailed reference viewed: 151 (12 UL)The relation between visuospatial abilities and verbal number skills in preschool: Adding spatial language to the equation Georges, Carrie ; ; Schiltz, Christine Poster (2018, September) Detailed reference viewed: 74 (5 UL)LEARN Newsletter - Editioun 2018 Georges, Carrie ; Hoffmann, Danielle ; Hornung, Caroline et al Book published by LEARN (2018) Detailed reference viewed: 76 (3 UL)LEARN Newsletter - Édition 2018 Georges, Carrie ; Hoffmann, Danielle ; Hornung, Caroline et al Book published by LEARN (2018) Detailed reference viewed: 77 (1 UL)Developmental changes in the effect of active left and right head rotation on random number generation Georges, Carrie ; Sosson, Charlotte ; Guillaume, Mathieu et al in Frontiers in Psychology (2018) Detailed reference viewed: 114 (3 UL)Implicit and explicit number-space associations differentially relate to interference control in young adults with ADHD Georges, Carrie ; Hoffmann, Danielle ; Schiltz, Christine in Frontiers in Psychology (2018) Detailed reference viewed: 181 (3 UL)Spatial skills first: The importance of mental rotation for arithmetic skill acquisition Georges, Carrie ; Cornu, Véronique ; Schiltz, Christine Poster (2017, September) Detailed reference viewed: 115 (5 UL)Mathematical abilities in elementary school: Do they relate to number–space associations? Georges, Carrie ; Hoffmann, Danielle ; Schiltz, Christine in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2017) Considering the importance of mathematics in Western societies, it is crucial to understand the cognitive processes involved in the acquisition of more complex mathematical skills. The current study ... [more ▼] Considering the importance of mathematics in Western societies, it is crucial to understand the cognitive processes involved in the acquisition of more complex mathematical skills. The current study, therefore, investigated how the quality of number–space mappings on the mental number line, as indexed by the parity SNARC (spatial–numerical association of response codes) effect, relates to mathematical performances in third- and fourth-grade elementary school children. Mathematical competencies were determined using the “Heidelberger Rechentest,” a standardized German math test assessing both arithmetical and visuospatial math components. Stronger parity SNARC effects significantly related to better arithmetical but not visuospatial math abilities, albeit only in the relatively younger children. These findings highlight the importance of spatial–numerical interactions for arithmetical (as opposed to visuospatial) math skills at the fairly early stages of mathematical development. Differential relations might be explained by the reliance on problem-solving strategies involving number–space mappings only for arithmetic tasks mainly in younger children. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 207 (14 UL)Number-Space Associations as Indexed by the SNARC Effect – Their Relations to Mathematical Abilities and Anxiety & Their Underlying Cognitive Mechanisms Georges, Carrie Doctoral thesis (2017) Detailed reference viewed: 150 (22 UL)How and Why Do Number-Space Associations Co-Vary in Implicit and Explicit Magnitude Processing Tasks? Georges, Carrie ; Hoffmann, Danielle ; Schiltz, Christine in Journal of Numerical Cognition (2017) Detailed reference viewed: 176 (10 UL)How Math Anxiety relates to Number-Space Associations. Georges, Carrie ; Hoffmann, Danielle ; Schiltz, Christine in Frontiers in Psychology (2016), 7(1401), Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the ... [more ▼] Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioral evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number-space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 159 (11 UL)Age modulates the relation between number-space associations and arithmetical abilities in elementary school children Georges, Carrie ; Hoffmann, Danielle ; Schiltz, Christine Poster (2016, September) Evidence for number-space associations comes from the SNARC effect, consisting in faster RTs to small/large digits with the left/right hand respectively. In adults, number-space associations relate to ... [more ▼] Evidence for number-space associations comes from the SNARC effect, consisting in faster RTs to small/large digits with the left/right hand respectively. In adults, number-space associations relate to mathematical proficiency in that individuals with weaker arithmetic performances feature stronger SNARC effects (Hoffmann et al., 2014). However, in children far less is known about number-space associations and how they affect arithmetic performance. We therefore investigated the relationship between the classical parity SNARC effect and mathematical proficiency, assessed using the Heidelberger Rechentest, in elementary school children aged 8-11 years (n=55, mean=9.5). Overall, the parity SNARC regression slopes (-11.37, p<.001) negatively correlated with HRT arithmetical (r=-.28, p=.04; even when controlling for parity judgment RTs: r=-.37, p=.01), but not HRT visuo-spatial subscale scores (r=-.03, p=.82), indicating better arithmetic performances with stronger number-space associations. However, this relation was significantly moderated by age, since the interaction between the parity SNARC effect and age accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in HRT arithmetical scores (ΔR2=.07, b=0.26, t(51)=2.29, p=.03). A significant negative association was observed only in younger children (b=-0.35, t=-3.49, p=.001) aged below 9.5 years (n=29), while the SNARC effect did not relate to arithmetic performance in the remaining older children. This suggests that number-space associations are beneficial for arithmetic performance at relatively early stages of mathematical learning. During the course of mathematical development in childhood, number-space associations then turn superfluous for arithmetic achievement until they possibly become interfering in young adults, who have reached the peak of their developmental trajectory. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 96 (7 UL)Math anxiety is predicted by the strength of number-space associations, over and beyond arithmetic ability and WM Georges, Carrie ; Hoffmann, Danielle ; Schiltz, Christine Poster (2015, October) Math skills are undeniably important in everyday life. Math anxiety can, however, threaten their optimal development. Given that a fifth of the population experiences high math anxiety, it is important to ... [more ▼] Math skills are undeniably important in everyday life. Math anxiety can, however, threaten their optimal development. Given that a fifth of the population experiences high math anxiety, it is important to identify its origins in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of math ability, WM, and spatial performance. Recent evidence, however, suggests that it also depends on basic numerical processes, with high math anxious individuals featuring less precise numerical representations, as indexed by stronger distance effects. Another marker for the nature of numerical representations is the SNARC effect, alluding to their spatial organization. Although number-space associations depend on WM, spatial performance and arithmetic ability - all related to math anxiety - their relationship with the latter has never been tested. We thus determined whether math anxiety is related to the strength of number-space associations. All participants (n=60, 28 female) completed the r-MARS, the parity judgment, an arithmetic, and visuospatial WM task. We replicated previous findings on the negative relationships between math anxiety and arithmetic ability (r=-0.3, p=0.02), and WM (r=-0.29, p=0.03). But most importantly, we found a significant negative correlation between the SNARC effect and math anxiety (slope=-11.42, r=-0.43, p<0.001), with high math anxious individuals featuring greater interference of the irrelevant magnitude-associated spatial code. Interestingly, number-space associations were the only significant predictor of math anxiety in a multiple regression analysis. Our findings thus provide further evidence for the association between numerical representations and math anxiety, over and beyond arithmetic ability and WM. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 120 (10 UL)The link between number-space associations and visuospatial abilities depends on visualization profile Georges, Carrie ; Hoffmann, Danielle ; Schiltz, Christine Poster (2015, September) Background: Evidence for number-space associations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response-codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster RTs to small/large digits with the left/right hand ... [more ▼] Background: Evidence for number-space associations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response-codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster RTs to small/large digits with the left/right hand respectively. However, the cognitive origin of the effect remains elusive. Previous studies suggested that it might depend on visuospatial processes, since individuals with better performances in 2D (but not 3D) mental rotation tasks displayed weaker number-space associations (Viarouge et al., 2014). Aims: Given the high inter-individual variability of number-space associations, we determined whether the SNARC effect always relies on visuospatial processes or whether its cognitive origin varies with visualization preferences. Method: We distinguished between object-visualizers (n=42, 23 female, age=22.93) and spatial-visualizers (n=42, 15 female, age=23.9) using the Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire (Blajenkova et al., 2006). All participants performed the parity judgment task, a 2D visuospatial test and a 3D mental rotation task. Results: In object-visualizers, weaker SNARC slopes were associated with better performances in the 2D (r=0.46, p=0.004), but not 3D (r=-0.04, p=0.79) task, thereby replicating previous observations. Conversely, in spatial-visualizers, the performances in both visuospatial tasks were unrelated to the SNARC effect (2D: r=0.02, p=0.89; 3D: r=0.2, p=0.22). Conclusions: These findings suggest that in object-visualizers, number-space associations and 2D performances underlie common visuospatial processes. Conversely, in spatial-visualizers, number-space associations seem to result from cognitive mechanisms other than those recruited during the aforementioned visuospatial tasks (e.g., verbal-spatial coding mechanisms). All in all, we were able to further unravel the mechanisms underlying number-space associations and could highlight visualization preferences as an additional explanation for the great inter-individual variability of the SNARC effect. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 95 (9 UL)Inhibitory control influences number-space associations in atypical young adults with ADHD Georges, Carrie ; Hoffmann, Danielle ; Schiltz, Christine Poster (2015, May) Evidence for number-space associations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response-codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster reaction times (RTs) to small/large digits with the left/right ... [more ▼] Evidence for number-space associations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response-codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster reaction times (RTs) to small/large digits with the left/right hand respectively. The SNARC effect is, however, characterized by high inter-individual variability, depending amongst others on inhibition capacities. Hoffmann et al. (2014) showed that individuals more sensitive to the interference of irrelevant information in the classical color-word Stroop task displayed stronger number-space associations. This relation was most pronounced in elderly, but did not reach significance in young healthy adults. To determine whether the negligible correlation in the young resulted from their near ceiling performances on the color-word Stroop task, we recruited young adults featuring atypically weak and variable inhibitory control. Our study population consisted of individuals (n=32; 18 females; age=27.28 years) formally diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=4) and/or displaying symptoms consistent with ADHD according to the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1; n=29). Within this population, a significant negative correlation (r=-0.45; p=0.009) could be observed between the parity SNARC effect (mean slope=-14.17; p<0.001) and Stroop interference, as indexed by the color-word Stroop ratio score (i.e. the difference in RTs between the color-word interference condition and the color naming condition divided by the RT in the word reading condition; mean ratio=0.82). The relationship remained significant even after controlling for arithmetic performance and general processing speed, as assessed using the arithmetic battery (Rubinsten & Henik, 2005; Shalev et al., 2001; mean accuracy=84.61%) and a speeded matching-to-sample task respectively (mean RT=671.86ms; r=-0.47; p=0.008). Our findings thus reveal that stronger number-space associations are associated with weaker Stroop inhibitory control in young adults with atypical attentional profiles, thereby further confirming the similarities between SNARC effects and Stroop-like interference effects. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 112 (6 UL) |
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