Data from the 1990 Census of Population are used to assess the earnings attainment of male African immigrants, their Caribbean-born counterparts, and native-born African Americans. Although Africans earn more than both Caribbean immigrants and native-born blacks, controlling for relevant earnings-related endowments erases the African advantage, and elevates Caribbean earnings above those of the other two groups. The findings also trace a substantial African (but not Caribbean) disadvantage, wherein university degree holders, particularly those with degrees earned abroad, receive little, if any, reward for their degrees. Implications of the findings are discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Sociology and Political Science