We demonstrate that asymmetric acoustic wave transmission in a waveguide can be achieved via gradient index metamaterials (GIMs). We theoretically prove that the acoustic wave can be efficiently converted to surface waves (SWs) via GIMs. The GIMs in a waveguide can allow the transmission of acoustic waves in one direction but block them in the other direction. This theory is validated by experiments. Our findings may provide new applications in various scenarios such as high-efficiency acoustic couplers and noise control.
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