Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is initiated by a non -resolving inflammatory response, and later develops into a chronic disease in which genetic predisposition, diet, and lifestyle promote onset and progression. Modifiable CVD risk factors include overweight/obesity, elevated total cholesterol, low -density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides, and low high -density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, hyperglycemia, physical inactivity, cigarette smoking, stress, and an unhealthy dietary pattern. Effects of the macronutrients and selected vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants on CVD risk are reviewed. Combinations of various nutrients significantly reduce CVD risk factors. Furthermore, modifications in dietary patterns have been shown to reduce CVD risk by as much as 40%. Food -based dietary guidelines for reducing CVD risk are presented from various national and global health organizations. Efforts to manage co -morbidities such as obesity and diabetes also significantly impact disease risk. The need for population -wide strategies to curtail incidence of this epidemic is briefly discussed.
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