Atomically Thin Layers of Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Made by Solvent Exfoliation of Their Phosphoric Acid Intercalation Compounds

Nina I. Kovtyukhova, Nestor Perea-López, Mauricio Terrones, Thomas E. Mallouk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The development of scalable and reliable techniques for the production of the atomically thin layers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in bulk quantities could make these materials a powerful platform for devices and composites that impact a wide variety of technologies (Nature 2012, 490, 192-200). To date a number of practical exfoliation methods have been reported that are based on sonicating or stirring powdered graphite or h-BN in common solvents. However, the products of these experiments consist mainly of few-layer sheets and contain only a small fraction of monolayers. A possible reason for this is that splitting the crystals into monolayers starts from solvent intercalation, which must overcome the substantial interlayer cohesive energy (120-720 mJ/m2) of the van der Waals solids. Here we show that the yield of the atomically thin layers can be increased to near unity when stage-1 intercalation compounds of phosphoric acid are used as starting materials. The exfoliation to predominantly monolayers was achieved by stirring them in medium polarity organic solvents that can form hydrogen bonds. The exfoliation process does not disrupt the sp2 π-system of graphene and is gentle enough to allow the preparation of graphene and h-BN monolayers that are tens of microns in their lateral dimensions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6746-6754
Number of pages9
JournalACS nano
Volume11
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 25 2017

Fingerprint

Intercalation compounds
Graphite
Boron nitride
phosphoric acid
Phosphoric acid
boron nitrides
intercalation
Graphene
Monolayers
graphene
stirring
unity
interlayers
polarity
Intercalation
platforms
graphite
Organic solvents
hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen bonds

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

@article{5e5dfe388d4141b6a65e44efe426a2e6,
title = "Atomically Thin Layers of Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Made by Solvent Exfoliation of Their Phosphoric Acid Intercalation Compounds",
abstract = "The development of scalable and reliable techniques for the production of the atomically thin layers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in bulk quantities could make these materials a powerful platform for devices and composites that impact a wide variety of technologies (Nature 2012, 490, 192-200). To date a number of practical exfoliation methods have been reported that are based on sonicating or stirring powdered graphite or h-BN in common solvents. However, the products of these experiments consist mainly of few-layer sheets and contain only a small fraction of monolayers. A possible reason for this is that splitting the crystals into monolayers starts from solvent intercalation, which must overcome the substantial interlayer cohesive energy (120-720 mJ/m2) of the van der Waals solids. Here we show that the yield of the atomically thin layers can be increased to near unity when stage-1 intercalation compounds of phosphoric acid are used as starting materials. The exfoliation to predominantly monolayers was achieved by stirring them in medium polarity organic solvents that can form hydrogen bonds. The exfoliation process does not disrupt the sp2 π-system of graphene and is gentle enough to allow the preparation of graphene and h-BN monolayers that are tens of microns in their lateral dimensions.",
author = "Kovtyukhova, {Nina I.} and Nestor Perea-L{\'o}pez and Mauricio Terrones and Mallouk, {Thomas E.}",
year = "2017",
month = "7",
day = "25",
doi = "10.1021/acsnano.7b01311",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "11",
pages = "6746--6754",
journal = "ACS Nano",
issn = "1936-0851",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "7",

}

Atomically Thin Layers of Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Made by Solvent Exfoliation of Their Phosphoric Acid Intercalation Compounds. / Kovtyukhova, Nina I.; Perea-López, Nestor; Terrones, Mauricio; Mallouk, Thomas E.

In: ACS nano, Vol. 11, No. 7, 25.07.2017, p. 6746-6754.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Atomically Thin Layers of Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Made by Solvent Exfoliation of Their Phosphoric Acid Intercalation Compounds

AU - Kovtyukhova, Nina I.

AU - Perea-López, Nestor

AU - Terrones, Mauricio

AU - Mallouk, Thomas E.

PY - 2017/7/25

Y1 - 2017/7/25

N2 - The development of scalable and reliable techniques for the production of the atomically thin layers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in bulk quantities could make these materials a powerful platform for devices and composites that impact a wide variety of technologies (Nature 2012, 490, 192-200). To date a number of practical exfoliation methods have been reported that are based on sonicating or stirring powdered graphite or h-BN in common solvents. However, the products of these experiments consist mainly of few-layer sheets and contain only a small fraction of monolayers. A possible reason for this is that splitting the crystals into monolayers starts from solvent intercalation, which must overcome the substantial interlayer cohesive energy (120-720 mJ/m2) of the van der Waals solids. Here we show that the yield of the atomically thin layers can be increased to near unity when stage-1 intercalation compounds of phosphoric acid are used as starting materials. The exfoliation to predominantly monolayers was achieved by stirring them in medium polarity organic solvents that can form hydrogen bonds. The exfoliation process does not disrupt the sp2 π-system of graphene and is gentle enough to allow the preparation of graphene and h-BN monolayers that are tens of microns in their lateral dimensions.

AB - The development of scalable and reliable techniques for the production of the atomically thin layers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in bulk quantities could make these materials a powerful platform for devices and composites that impact a wide variety of technologies (Nature 2012, 490, 192-200). To date a number of practical exfoliation methods have been reported that are based on sonicating or stirring powdered graphite or h-BN in common solvents. However, the products of these experiments consist mainly of few-layer sheets and contain only a small fraction of monolayers. A possible reason for this is that splitting the crystals into monolayers starts from solvent intercalation, which must overcome the substantial interlayer cohesive energy (120-720 mJ/m2) of the van der Waals solids. Here we show that the yield of the atomically thin layers can be increased to near unity when stage-1 intercalation compounds of phosphoric acid are used as starting materials. The exfoliation to predominantly monolayers was achieved by stirring them in medium polarity organic solvents that can form hydrogen bonds. The exfoliation process does not disrupt the sp2 π-system of graphene and is gentle enough to allow the preparation of graphene and h-BN monolayers that are tens of microns in their lateral dimensions.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85026293685&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85026293685&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/acsnano.7b01311

DO - 10.1021/acsnano.7b01311

M3 - Article

C2 - 28686413

AN - SCOPUS:85026293685

VL - 11

SP - 6746

EP - 6754

JO - ACS Nano

JF - ACS Nano

SN - 1936-0851

IS - 7

ER -