Average spectra of massive galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

Daniel J. Eisenstein, David W. Hogg, Masataka Fukugita, Osamu Nakamura, Mariangela Bernardi, Douglas P. Finkbeiner, David J. Schlegel, J. Brinkmann, Andrew J. Connolly, István Csabai, James E. Gunn, Željko Ivezić, Don Q. Lamb, Jon Loveday, Jeffrey A. Munn, Robert C. Nicol, Donald P. Schneider, Michael A. Strauss, Alex Szalay, Don G. York

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

87 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra of 22,000 luminous, red, bulge-dominated galaxies to get high signal-to-noise ratio average spectra in the rest-frame optical and ultraviolet (2600-7000 A). The average spectra of these massive, quiescent galaxies are early type with weak emission lines and with absorption lines indicating an apparent excess of α-elements over solar abundance ratios. We make average spectra of subsamples selected by luminosity, environment, and redshift. The average spectra are remarkable in their similarity. What variations do exist in the average spectra as a function of luminosity and environment are found to form a nearly one-parameter family in spectrum space. We present a high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum of the variation. We measure the properties of the variation with a modified version of the Lick index system and compare to model spectra from stellar population syntheses. The variation may be a combination of age and chemical abundance differences, but the conservative conclusion is that the quality of the data considerably exceeds the current state of the models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)694-713
Number of pages20
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume585
Issue number2 I
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 10 2003

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galaxies
signal-to-noise ratio
signal to noise ratios
luminosity
synthesis

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Eisenstein, D. J., Hogg, D. W., Fukugita, M., Nakamura, O., Bernardi, M., Finkbeiner, D. P., ... York, D. G. (2003). Average spectra of massive galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Astrophysical Journal, 585(2 I), 694-713. https://doi.org/10.1086/346233
Eisenstein, Daniel J. ; Hogg, David W. ; Fukugita, Masataka ; Nakamura, Osamu ; Bernardi, Mariangela ; Finkbeiner, Douglas P. ; Schlegel, David J. ; Brinkmann, J. ; Connolly, Andrew J. ; Csabai, István ; Gunn, James E. ; Ivezić, Željko ; Lamb, Don Q. ; Loveday, Jon ; Munn, Jeffrey A. ; Nicol, Robert C. ; Schneider, Donald P. ; Strauss, Michael A. ; Szalay, Alex ; York, Don G. / Average spectra of massive galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2003 ; Vol. 585, No. 2 I. pp. 694-713.
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abstract = "We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra of 22,000 luminous, red, bulge-dominated galaxies to get high signal-to-noise ratio average spectra in the rest-frame optical and ultraviolet (2600-7000 A). The average spectra of these massive, quiescent galaxies are early type with weak emission lines and with absorption lines indicating an apparent excess of α-elements over solar abundance ratios. We make average spectra of subsamples selected by luminosity, environment, and redshift. The average spectra are remarkable in their similarity. What variations do exist in the average spectra as a function of luminosity and environment are found to form a nearly one-parameter family in spectrum space. We present a high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum of the variation. We measure the properties of the variation with a modified version of the Lick index system and compare to model spectra from stellar population syntheses. The variation may be a combination of age and chemical abundance differences, but the conservative conclusion is that the quality of the data considerably exceeds the current state of the models.",
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Eisenstein, DJ, Hogg, DW, Fukugita, M, Nakamura, O, Bernardi, M, Finkbeiner, DP, Schlegel, DJ, Brinkmann, J, Connolly, AJ, Csabai, I, Gunn, JE, Ivezić, Ž, Lamb, DQ, Loveday, J, Munn, JA, Nicol, RC, Schneider, DP, Strauss, MA, Szalay, A & York, DG 2003, 'Average spectra of massive galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 585, no. 2 I, pp. 694-713. https://doi.org/10.1086/346233

Average spectra of massive galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. / Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Hogg, David W.; Fukugita, Masataka; Nakamura, Osamu; Bernardi, Mariangela; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Schlegel, David J.; Brinkmann, J.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Csabai, István; Gunn, James E.; Ivezić, Željko; Lamb, Don Q.; Loveday, Jon; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Nicol, Robert C.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alex; York, Don G.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 585, No. 2 I, 10.03.2003, p. 694-713.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Average spectra of massive galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

AU - Eisenstein, Daniel J.

AU - Hogg, David W.

AU - Fukugita, Masataka

AU - Nakamura, Osamu

AU - Bernardi, Mariangela

AU - Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

AU - Schlegel, David J.

AU - Brinkmann, J.

AU - Connolly, Andrew J.

AU - Csabai, István

AU - Gunn, James E.

AU - Ivezić, Željko

AU - Lamb, Don Q.

AU - Loveday, Jon

AU - Munn, Jeffrey A.

AU - Nicol, Robert C.

AU - Schneider, Donald P.

AU - Strauss, Michael A.

AU - Szalay, Alex

AU - York, Don G.

PY - 2003/3/10

Y1 - 2003/3/10

N2 - We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra of 22,000 luminous, red, bulge-dominated galaxies to get high signal-to-noise ratio average spectra in the rest-frame optical and ultraviolet (2600-7000 A). The average spectra of these massive, quiescent galaxies are early type with weak emission lines and with absorption lines indicating an apparent excess of α-elements over solar abundance ratios. We make average spectra of subsamples selected by luminosity, environment, and redshift. The average spectra are remarkable in their similarity. What variations do exist in the average spectra as a function of luminosity and environment are found to form a nearly one-parameter family in spectrum space. We present a high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum of the variation. We measure the properties of the variation with a modified version of the Lick index system and compare to model spectra from stellar population syntheses. The variation may be a combination of age and chemical abundance differences, but the conservative conclusion is that the quality of the data considerably exceeds the current state of the models.

AB - We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra of 22,000 luminous, red, bulge-dominated galaxies to get high signal-to-noise ratio average spectra in the rest-frame optical and ultraviolet (2600-7000 A). The average spectra of these massive, quiescent galaxies are early type with weak emission lines and with absorption lines indicating an apparent excess of α-elements over solar abundance ratios. We make average spectra of subsamples selected by luminosity, environment, and redshift. The average spectra are remarkable in their similarity. What variations do exist in the average spectra as a function of luminosity and environment are found to form a nearly one-parameter family in spectrum space. We present a high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum of the variation. We measure the properties of the variation with a modified version of the Lick index system and compare to model spectra from stellar population syntheses. The variation may be a combination of age and chemical abundance differences, but the conservative conclusion is that the quality of the data considerably exceeds the current state of the models.

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U2 - 10.1086/346233

DO - 10.1086/346233

M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:0041761667

VL - 585

SP - 694

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JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2 I

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Eisenstein DJ, Hogg DW, Fukugita M, Nakamura O, Bernardi M, Finkbeiner DP et al. Average spectra of massive galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Astrophysical Journal. 2003 Mar 10;585(2 I):694-713. https://doi.org/10.1086/346233