Purpose: The characteristics and impact of bacteremia have not been widely investigated in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of immunocompromised patients with ARF (EFRAIM study). After exclusion of blood cultures positive for coagulase negative Staphylococci, we compared patients with (n = 236) and without (n = 1127) bacteremia. Results: The incidence of bacteremia was 17%. Bacterial pneumonia and extra-pulmonary ARDS were the main causes of ARF in bacteremic patients. Bacteremia involved gram negative rods (48%), gram positive cocci (40%) or were polymicrobial (10%). Bacteremic patients had more hematological malignancy, higher SOFA scores and increased organ support within 7 days. Bacteremia was associated with higher crude ICU mortality (40% versus 32%, p = 0.02), but neither hospital (49% versus 44%, p = 0.17) nor 90-day mortality (60% versus 56%, p = 0.25) were different from non-bacteremic patients. After propensity score matching based on baseline characteristics, the difference in ICU mortality lost statistical significance (p = 0.06), including in a sensitivity analysis restricted to patients with pneumonia. Conclusions: We analyzed a large population of immunocompromised patients with ARF and an incidence of bacteremia of 17%. We could not demonstrate an impact of bacteremia on mortality after adjusting for baseline characteristics.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine