Balancing strength and flexibility: how the synthesis, organization, and modification of guard cell walls govern stomatal development and dynamics

Yue Rui, Yintong Chen, Baris Kandemir, Hojae Yi, James Wang, Virendra Puri, Charles T. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Guard cells are pairs of epidermal cells that control gas diffusion by regulating the opening and closure of stomatal pores. Guard cells, like other types of plant cells, are surrounded by a three-dimensional, extracellular network of polysaccharide-based wall polymers. In contrast to the walls of diffusely growing cells, guard cell walls have been hypothesized to be uniquely strong and elastic to meet the functional requirements of withstanding high turgor and allowing for reversible stomatal movements. Although the walls of guard cells were long underexplored as compared to extensive studies of stomatal development and guard cell signaling, recent research has provided new genetic, cytological, and physiological data demonstrating that guard cell walls function centrally in stomatal development and dynamics. In this review, we highlight and discuss the latest evidence for how wall polysaccharides are synthesized, deposited, reorganized, modified, and degraded in guard cells, and how these processes influence stomatal form and function. We also raise open questions and provide a perspective on experimental approaches that could be used in the future to shed light on the composition and architecture of guard cell walls.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1202
JournalFrontiers in Plant Science
Volume9
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 20 2018

Fingerprint

guard cells
strength (mechanics)
cell walls
synthesis
polysaccharides
stomatal movement
cells
turgor
polymers
gases

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Plant Science

Cite this

@article{5b947764ce294f0c9a30518b60fb4c40,
title = "Balancing strength and flexibility: how the synthesis, organization, and modification of guard cell walls govern stomatal development and dynamics",
abstract = "Guard cells are pairs of epidermal cells that control gas diffusion by regulating the opening and closure of stomatal pores. Guard cells, like other types of plant cells, are surrounded by a three-dimensional, extracellular network of polysaccharide-based wall polymers. In contrast to the walls of diffusely growing cells, guard cell walls have been hypothesized to be uniquely strong and elastic to meet the functional requirements of withstanding high turgor and allowing for reversible stomatal movements. Although the walls of guard cells were long underexplored as compared to extensive studies of stomatal development and guard cell signaling, recent research has provided new genetic, cytological, and physiological data demonstrating that guard cell walls function centrally in stomatal development and dynamics. In this review, we highlight and discuss the latest evidence for how wall polysaccharides are synthesized, deposited, reorganized, modified, and degraded in guard cells, and how these processes influence stomatal form and function. We also raise open questions and provide a perspective on experimental approaches that could be used in the future to shed light on the composition and architecture of guard cell walls.",
author = "Yue Rui and Yintong Chen and Baris Kandemir and Hojae Yi and James Wang and Virendra Puri and Anderson, {Charles T.}",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
day = "20",
doi = "10.3389/fpls.2018.01202",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "9",
journal = "Frontiers in Plant Science",
issn = "1664-462X",
publisher = "Frontiers Media S. A.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Balancing strength and flexibility

T2 - how the synthesis, organization, and modification of guard cell walls govern stomatal development and dynamics

AU - Rui, Yue

AU - Chen, Yintong

AU - Kandemir, Baris

AU - Yi, Hojae

AU - Wang, James

AU - Puri, Virendra

AU - Anderson, Charles T.

PY - 2018/8/20

Y1 - 2018/8/20

N2 - Guard cells are pairs of epidermal cells that control gas diffusion by regulating the opening and closure of stomatal pores. Guard cells, like other types of plant cells, are surrounded by a three-dimensional, extracellular network of polysaccharide-based wall polymers. In contrast to the walls of diffusely growing cells, guard cell walls have been hypothesized to be uniquely strong and elastic to meet the functional requirements of withstanding high turgor and allowing for reversible stomatal movements. Although the walls of guard cells were long underexplored as compared to extensive studies of stomatal development and guard cell signaling, recent research has provided new genetic, cytological, and physiological data demonstrating that guard cell walls function centrally in stomatal development and dynamics. In this review, we highlight and discuss the latest evidence for how wall polysaccharides are synthesized, deposited, reorganized, modified, and degraded in guard cells, and how these processes influence stomatal form and function. We also raise open questions and provide a perspective on experimental approaches that could be used in the future to shed light on the composition and architecture of guard cell walls.

AB - Guard cells are pairs of epidermal cells that control gas diffusion by regulating the opening and closure of stomatal pores. Guard cells, like other types of plant cells, are surrounded by a three-dimensional, extracellular network of polysaccharide-based wall polymers. In contrast to the walls of diffusely growing cells, guard cell walls have been hypothesized to be uniquely strong and elastic to meet the functional requirements of withstanding high turgor and allowing for reversible stomatal movements. Although the walls of guard cells were long underexplored as compared to extensive studies of stomatal development and guard cell signaling, recent research has provided new genetic, cytological, and physiological data demonstrating that guard cell walls function centrally in stomatal development and dynamics. In this review, we highlight and discuss the latest evidence for how wall polysaccharides are synthesized, deposited, reorganized, modified, and degraded in guard cells, and how these processes influence stomatal form and function. We also raise open questions and provide a perspective on experimental approaches that could be used in the future to shed light on the composition and architecture of guard cell walls.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85054532601&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85054532601&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3389/fpls.2018.01202

DO - 10.3389/fpls.2018.01202

M3 - Review article

C2 - 30177940

AN - SCOPUS:85054532601

VL - 9

JO - Frontiers in Plant Science

JF - Frontiers in Plant Science

SN - 1664-462X

M1 - 1202

ER -