Behavior and monoamine deficits in prenatal and perinatal iron deficiency are not corrected by early postnatal moderate-iron or high-iron diets in rats

Erica L. Unger, Amy R. Hurst, Michael K. Georgieff, Tim Schallert, Raghavendra Rao, James Connor, Niko Kaciroti, Betsy Lozoff, Barbara Felt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Developmental iron deficiency anemia (IDA) causes brain and behavioral deficits in rodent models, which cannot be reversed when treated at periods equivalent to later infancy in humans. This study sought to determine whether earlier iron treatment can normalize deficits of IDA in rats and what iron dose is optimal. The offspring of dams with IDA during gestation were cross-fostered at postnatal d (P) 8 to dams receiving diets with 1 of 3 iron concentrations until weaning (P21): 0.003-0.01 g/kg [totally iron deficient (TID)]; 0.04 g/kg [formerly iron deficient (FID-40)]; or 0.4 g/kg (FID-400). Always iron-sufficient control dams (CN-40) received a 0.04-g/kg iron diet. At P21, TID pups received a 0.01 g iron/kg diet; all others received a 0.04 g iron/kg diet. Hematocrit and brain iron and monoamine concentrations were assessed at P21 and P100. Pup growth, development, activity, object recognition, hesitancy, and watermaze performance were evaluated. Regional brain iron was restored by iron treatment. Regional monoamine and metabolite concentrations were elevated in FID-40 rats and reduced in FID-400 and TID rats compared with CN-40 rats. FID-40 offspring had motor delays similar to TID during lactation and FID-400 rats had elevated thigmotaxis similar to TID rats at P25 and P100 in the spatial watermaze. In conclusion, iron treatment at P8 in rats did not normalize all monoamine or behavioral measures after early IDA. Moderate iron treatment improved adult behavior, but higher iron treatment caused brain and behavioral patterns similar to TID in the short and long term.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2040-2049
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume142
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2012

Fingerprint

Iron
Diet
Iron-Deficiency Anemias
Brain
Weaning
Growth and Development
Hematocrit
Lactation
Rodentia

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Unger, Erica L. ; Hurst, Amy R. ; Georgieff, Michael K. ; Schallert, Tim ; Rao, Raghavendra ; Connor, James ; Kaciroti, Niko ; Lozoff, Betsy ; Felt, Barbara. / Behavior and monoamine deficits in prenatal and perinatal iron deficiency are not corrected by early postnatal moderate-iron or high-iron diets in rats. In: Journal of Nutrition. 2012 ; Vol. 142, No. 11. pp. 2040-2049.
@article{9257ef05513245d889f22aaae051f523,
title = "Behavior and monoamine deficits in prenatal and perinatal iron deficiency are not corrected by early postnatal moderate-iron or high-iron diets in rats",
abstract = "Developmental iron deficiency anemia (IDA) causes brain and behavioral deficits in rodent models, which cannot be reversed when treated at periods equivalent to later infancy in humans. This study sought to determine whether earlier iron treatment can normalize deficits of IDA in rats and what iron dose is optimal. The offspring of dams with IDA during gestation were cross-fostered at postnatal d (P) 8 to dams receiving diets with 1 of 3 iron concentrations until weaning (P21): 0.003-0.01 g/kg [totally iron deficient (TID)]; 0.04 g/kg [formerly iron deficient (FID-40)]; or 0.4 g/kg (FID-400). Always iron-sufficient control dams (CN-40) received a 0.04-g/kg iron diet. At P21, TID pups received a 0.01 g iron/kg diet; all others received a 0.04 g iron/kg diet. Hematocrit and brain iron and monoamine concentrations were assessed at P21 and P100. Pup growth, development, activity, object recognition, hesitancy, and watermaze performance were evaluated. Regional brain iron was restored by iron treatment. Regional monoamine and metabolite concentrations were elevated in FID-40 rats and reduced in FID-400 and TID rats compared with CN-40 rats. FID-40 offspring had motor delays similar to TID during lactation and FID-400 rats had elevated thigmotaxis similar to TID rats at P25 and P100 in the spatial watermaze. In conclusion, iron treatment at P8 in rats did not normalize all monoamine or behavioral measures after early IDA. Moderate iron treatment improved adult behavior, but higher iron treatment caused brain and behavioral patterns similar to TID in the short and long term.",
author = "Unger, {Erica L.} and Hurst, {Amy R.} and Georgieff, {Michael K.} and Tim Schallert and Raghavendra Rao and James Connor and Niko Kaciroti and Betsy Lozoff and Barbara Felt",
year = "2012",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3945/jn.112.162198",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "142",
pages = "2040--2049",
journal = "Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "0022-3166",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "11",

}

Behavior and monoamine deficits in prenatal and perinatal iron deficiency are not corrected by early postnatal moderate-iron or high-iron diets in rats. / Unger, Erica L.; Hurst, Amy R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Schallert, Tim; Rao, Raghavendra; Connor, James; Kaciroti, Niko; Lozoff, Betsy; Felt, Barbara.

In: Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 142, No. 11, 01.11.2012, p. 2040-2049.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Behavior and monoamine deficits in prenatal and perinatal iron deficiency are not corrected by early postnatal moderate-iron or high-iron diets in rats

AU - Unger, Erica L.

AU - Hurst, Amy R.

AU - Georgieff, Michael K.

AU - Schallert, Tim

AU - Rao, Raghavendra

AU - Connor, James

AU - Kaciroti, Niko

AU - Lozoff, Betsy

AU - Felt, Barbara

PY - 2012/11/1

Y1 - 2012/11/1

N2 - Developmental iron deficiency anemia (IDA) causes brain and behavioral deficits in rodent models, which cannot be reversed when treated at periods equivalent to later infancy in humans. This study sought to determine whether earlier iron treatment can normalize deficits of IDA in rats and what iron dose is optimal. The offspring of dams with IDA during gestation were cross-fostered at postnatal d (P) 8 to dams receiving diets with 1 of 3 iron concentrations until weaning (P21): 0.003-0.01 g/kg [totally iron deficient (TID)]; 0.04 g/kg [formerly iron deficient (FID-40)]; or 0.4 g/kg (FID-400). Always iron-sufficient control dams (CN-40) received a 0.04-g/kg iron diet. At P21, TID pups received a 0.01 g iron/kg diet; all others received a 0.04 g iron/kg diet. Hematocrit and brain iron and monoamine concentrations were assessed at P21 and P100. Pup growth, development, activity, object recognition, hesitancy, and watermaze performance were evaluated. Regional brain iron was restored by iron treatment. Regional monoamine and metabolite concentrations were elevated in FID-40 rats and reduced in FID-400 and TID rats compared with CN-40 rats. FID-40 offspring had motor delays similar to TID during lactation and FID-400 rats had elevated thigmotaxis similar to TID rats at P25 and P100 in the spatial watermaze. In conclusion, iron treatment at P8 in rats did not normalize all monoamine or behavioral measures after early IDA. Moderate iron treatment improved adult behavior, but higher iron treatment caused brain and behavioral patterns similar to TID in the short and long term.

AB - Developmental iron deficiency anemia (IDA) causes brain and behavioral deficits in rodent models, which cannot be reversed when treated at periods equivalent to later infancy in humans. This study sought to determine whether earlier iron treatment can normalize deficits of IDA in rats and what iron dose is optimal. The offspring of dams with IDA during gestation were cross-fostered at postnatal d (P) 8 to dams receiving diets with 1 of 3 iron concentrations until weaning (P21): 0.003-0.01 g/kg [totally iron deficient (TID)]; 0.04 g/kg [formerly iron deficient (FID-40)]; or 0.4 g/kg (FID-400). Always iron-sufficient control dams (CN-40) received a 0.04-g/kg iron diet. At P21, TID pups received a 0.01 g iron/kg diet; all others received a 0.04 g iron/kg diet. Hematocrit and brain iron and monoamine concentrations were assessed at P21 and P100. Pup growth, development, activity, object recognition, hesitancy, and watermaze performance were evaluated. Regional brain iron was restored by iron treatment. Regional monoamine and metabolite concentrations were elevated in FID-40 rats and reduced in FID-400 and TID rats compared with CN-40 rats. FID-40 offspring had motor delays similar to TID during lactation and FID-400 rats had elevated thigmotaxis similar to TID rats at P25 and P100 in the spatial watermaze. In conclusion, iron treatment at P8 in rats did not normalize all monoamine or behavioral measures after early IDA. Moderate iron treatment improved adult behavior, but higher iron treatment caused brain and behavioral patterns similar to TID in the short and long term.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84869121627&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84869121627&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3945/jn.112.162198

DO - 10.3945/jn.112.162198

M3 - Article

C2 - 22990465

AN - SCOPUS:84869121627

VL - 142

SP - 2040

EP - 2049

JO - Journal of Nutrition

JF - Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0022-3166

IS - 11

ER -