Behavioral approach-inhibition in toddlers: Prediction from infancy, positive and negative affective components, and relations with behavior problems

Samuel P. Putnam, Cynthia A. Stifter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

111 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this study, 126 children were observed at 6 months, 12 months, and 2 years. During infancy, latencies to reach for novel objects were measured. At 2 years, positive and negative affect, and behavioral approach-inhibition to low- and high-intensity situations were coded, and mothers assessed behavior problems. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a 3-dimension model of positivity, negativity, and behavioral approach-inhibition. Positivity was related to low- and high-intensity behavioral approach-inhibition, whereas negativity was linked only to low-intensity behavioral approach-inhibition. Shorter 12-month latencies to reach were predictive of low negativity, high positivity, and behavioral approach at 2 years. Positivity and negativity were correlated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors, respectively. Finally, cluster analysis identified an exuberant group high in externalizing and an inhibited group high in internalizing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)212-226
Number of pages15
JournalChild development
Volume76
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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