17 Scopus citations


Multiple observations are needed to obtain a robust characterization of individuals' behavioral tendencies across time and context. In this article, the authors fuse core ideas from the study of lifespan development with intraindividual variability based approaches to personality and with methods used to characterize the topography of geographic landscapes. The authors generalize the notion of density distributions into bivariate and multivariate space and draw parallels between the resulting behavioral landscapes and geographic landscapes. The authors illustrate through an empirical example how multiple time-scale study designs, measures of intraindividual variability, and methods borrowed from geography can be used to describe both an individual's behavioral landscape and changes in the behavioral landscape.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)88-110
Number of pages23
JournalResearch in Human Development
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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