Benefits of order: The influence of item sequencing on metacognition in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury

Kathy S. Chiou, Frank G. Hillary

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations


The ability to appraise one's own ability has been found to have an important role in the recovery and quality of life of clinical populations. Examinee and task variables have been found to influence metacognition in healthy students; however the effect of these variables on the metacognitive accuracy of adults with neurological insult, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), remains unknown. Twenty-two adults with moderate and severe TBI and a matched sample of healthy adults participated in this study examining the influence of item sequencing on metacognitive functioning. Retrospective confidence judgments were collected while participants completed a modified version of the Matrix Reasoning subtest. Significant influence of item sequence order was found, revealing better metacognitive abilities and performance when participants completed tasks where item difficulty progressed in order from easy to difficult. We interpret these findings to suggest that the sequencing of item difficulty offers "anchors" for gauging and adjusting to task demands.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)379-383
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2012


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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