Beyond Measures of Central Tendency: Novel Methods to Examine Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Performance Following Sports-Related Concussion in Collegiate Athletes

Victoria C. Merritt, Liora S. Greenberg, Erin Guty, Megan L. Bradson, Amanda R. Rabinowitz, Peter Andrew Arnett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective:The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in neuropsychological functioning after sports-related concussion using several approaches to assess cognition: mean performance, number of impaired scores, and intraindividual variability (IIV).Method:In the study, 152 concussed college athletes were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, on average, 10 days post-concussion (SD = 12.75; Mdn = 4 days; Range = 0-72 days). Mean performance was evaluated across 18 individual neuropsychological variables, and the total number of impaired test scores (>1.5 SD below the mean) was calculated for each athlete. Two measures of IIV were also computed: an intraindividual standard deviation (ISD) score and a maximum discrepancy (MD) score.Results:Analyses of covariance revealed that, compared with males, females had significantly more impaired scores and showed greater variability on both IIV indices (ISD and MD scores) after adjusting for time since injury and post-concussive symptoms. In contrast, no significant effects of sex were found when examining mean neuropsychological performance.Conclusion:Although females and males demonstrated similar mean performance following concussion, females exhibited a greater level of cognitive impairment and larger inconsistencies in cognitive performance than males. These results suggest that evaluating cognitive indices beyond mean neuropsychological scores may provide valuable information when determining the extent of post-concussion cognitive dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

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Athletic Performance
Sex Characteristics
Athletes
Post-Concussion Syndrome
Neuropsychological Tests
Cognition
Sports
Wounds and Injuries
Cognitive Dysfunction

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

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title = "Beyond Measures of Central Tendency: Novel Methods to Examine Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Performance Following Sports-Related Concussion in Collegiate Athletes",
abstract = "Objective:The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in neuropsychological functioning after sports-related concussion using several approaches to assess cognition: mean performance, number of impaired scores, and intraindividual variability (IIV).Method:In the study, 152 concussed college athletes were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, on average, 10 days post-concussion (SD = 12.75; Mdn = 4 days; Range = 0-72 days). Mean performance was evaluated across 18 individual neuropsychological variables, and the total number of impaired test scores (>1.5 SD below the mean) was calculated for each athlete. Two measures of IIV were also computed: an intraindividual standard deviation (ISD) score and a maximum discrepancy (MD) score.Results:Analyses of covariance revealed that, compared with males, females had significantly more impaired scores and showed greater variability on both IIV indices (ISD and MD scores) after adjusting for time since injury and post-concussive symptoms. In contrast, no significant effects of sex were found when examining mean neuropsychological performance.Conclusion:Although females and males demonstrated similar mean performance following concussion, females exhibited a greater level of cognitive impairment and larger inconsistencies in cognitive performance than males. These results suggest that evaluating cognitive indices beyond mean neuropsychological scores may provide valuable information when determining the extent of post-concussion cognitive dysfunction.",
author = "Merritt, {Victoria C.} and Greenberg, {Liora S.} and Erin Guty and Bradson, {Megan L.} and Rabinowitz, {Amanda R.} and Arnett, {Peter Andrew}",
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Beyond Measures of Central Tendency : Novel Methods to Examine Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Performance Following Sports-Related Concussion in Collegiate Athletes. / Merritt, Victoria C.; Greenberg, Liora S.; Guty, Erin; Bradson, Megan L.; Rabinowitz, Amanda R.; Arnett, Peter Andrew.

In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Rabinowitz, Amanda R.

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