BICEP2. II. Experiment and three-year data set

P. A.R. Ade, R. W. Aikin, M. Amiri, D. Barkats, S. J. Benton, C. A. Bischoff, J. J. Bock, J. A. Brevik, I. Buder, E. Bullock, G. Davis, P. K. Day, C. D. Dowell, L. Duband, J. P. Filippini, S. Fliescher, S. R. Golwala, M. Halpern, M. Hasselfield, S. R. HildebrandtG. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, K. S. Karkare, J. P. Kaufman, B. G. Keating, S. A. Kernasovskiy, J. M. Kovac, C. L. Kuo, E. M. Leitch, N. Llombart, M. Lueker, C. B. Netterfield, H. T. Nguyen, R. O'Brient, R. W. Ogburn IV, A. Orlando, C. Pryke, C. D. Reintsema, S. Richter, R. Schwarz, C. D. Sheehy, Z. K. Staniszewski, K. T. Story, R. V. Sudiwala, G. P. Teply, J. E. Tolan, A. D. Turner, A. G. Vieregg, P. Wilson, C. L. Wong, K. W. Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We report on the design and performance of the BICEP2 instrument and on its three-year data set. BICEP2 was designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales of 1°-5°(ℓ = 40-200), near the expected peak of the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. Measuring B-modes requires dramatic improvements in sensitivity combined with exquisite control of systematics. The BICEP2 telescope observed from the South Pole with a 26 cm aperture and cold, on-axis, refractive optics. BICEP2 also adopted a new detector design in which beam-defining slot antenna arrays couple to transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, all fabricated on a common substrate. The antenna-coupled TES detectors supported scalable fabrication and multiplexed readout that allowed BICEP2 to achieve a high detector count of 500 bolometers at 150 GHz, giving unprecedented sensitivity to B-modes at degree angular scales. After optimization of detector and readout parameters, BICEP2 achieved an instrument noise-equivalent temperature of . The full data set reached Stokes Q and U map depths of 87.2 nK in square-degree pixels (5.′2 μK) over an effective area of 384 deg2 within a 1000 deg2 field. These are the deepest CMB polarization maps at degree angular scales to date. The power spectrum analysis presented in a companion paper has resulted in a significant detection of B-mode polarization at degree scales.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number62
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume792
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2014

Fingerprint

polarization
detectors
bolometers
readout
antenna
experiment
sensor
microwaves
slot antennas
sensitivity
sensors
antenna arrays
inflation
gravitational waves
spectrum analysis
power spectra
pixel
poles
antennas
apertures

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Ade, P. A. R., Aikin, R. W., Amiri, M., Barkats, D., Benton, S. J., Bischoff, C. A., ... Yoon, K. W. (2014). BICEP2. II. Experiment and three-year data set. Astrophysical Journal, 792(1), [62]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/792/1/62
Ade, P. A.R. ; Aikin, R. W. ; Amiri, M. ; Barkats, D. ; Benton, S. J. ; Bischoff, C. A. ; Bock, J. J. ; Brevik, J. A. ; Buder, I. ; Bullock, E. ; Davis, G. ; Day, P. K. ; Dowell, C. D. ; Duband, L. ; Filippini, J. P. ; Fliescher, S. ; Golwala, S. R. ; Halpern, M. ; Hasselfield, M. ; Hildebrandt, S. R. ; Hilton, G. C. ; Irwin, K. D. ; Karkare, K. S. ; Kaufman, J. P. ; Keating, B. G. ; Kernasovskiy, S. A. ; Kovac, J. M. ; Kuo, C. L. ; Leitch, E. M. ; Llombart, N. ; Lueker, M. ; Netterfield, C. B. ; Nguyen, H. T. ; O'Brient, R. ; Ogburn IV, R. W. ; Orlando, A. ; Pryke, C. ; Reintsema, C. D. ; Richter, S. ; Schwarz, R. ; Sheehy, C. D. ; Staniszewski, Z. K. ; Story, K. T. ; Sudiwala, R. V. ; Teply, G. P. ; Tolan, J. E. ; Turner, A. D. ; Vieregg, A. G. ; Wilson, P. ; Wong, C. L. ; Yoon, K. W. / BICEP2. II. Experiment and three-year data set. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2014 ; Vol. 792, No. 1.
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abstract = "We report on the design and performance of the BICEP2 instrument and on its three-year data set. BICEP2 was designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales of 1°-5°(ℓ = 40-200), near the expected peak of the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. Measuring B-modes requires dramatic improvements in sensitivity combined with exquisite control of systematics. The BICEP2 telescope observed from the South Pole with a 26 cm aperture and cold, on-axis, refractive optics. BICEP2 also adopted a new detector design in which beam-defining slot antenna arrays couple to transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, all fabricated on a common substrate. The antenna-coupled TES detectors supported scalable fabrication and multiplexed readout that allowed BICEP2 to achieve a high detector count of 500 bolometers at 150 GHz, giving unprecedented sensitivity to B-modes at degree angular scales. After optimization of detector and readout parameters, BICEP2 achieved an instrument noise-equivalent temperature of . The full data set reached Stokes Q and U map depths of 87.2 nK in square-degree pixels (5.′2 μK) over an effective area of 384 deg2 within a 1000 deg2 field. These are the deepest CMB polarization maps at degree angular scales to date. The power spectrum analysis presented in a companion paper has resulted in a significant detection of B-mode polarization at degree scales.",
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Ade, PAR, Aikin, RW, Amiri, M, Barkats, D, Benton, SJ, Bischoff, CA, Bock, JJ, Brevik, JA, Buder, I, Bullock, E, Davis, G, Day, PK, Dowell, CD, Duband, L, Filippini, JP, Fliescher, S, Golwala, SR, Halpern, M, Hasselfield, M, Hildebrandt, SR, Hilton, GC, Irwin, KD, Karkare, KS, Kaufman, JP, Keating, BG, Kernasovskiy, SA, Kovac, JM, Kuo, CL, Leitch, EM, Llombart, N, Lueker, M, Netterfield, CB, Nguyen, HT, O'Brient, R, Ogburn IV, RW, Orlando, A, Pryke, C, Reintsema, CD, Richter, S, Schwarz, R, Sheehy, CD, Staniszewski, ZK, Story, KT, Sudiwala, RV, Teply, GP, Tolan, JE, Turner, AD, Vieregg, AG, Wilson, P, Wong, CL & Yoon, KW 2014, 'BICEP2. II. Experiment and three-year data set', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 792, no. 1, 62. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/792/1/62

BICEP2. II. Experiment and three-year data set. / Ade, P. A.R.; Aikin, R. W.; Amiri, M.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S. J.; Bischoff, C. A.; Bock, J. J.; Brevik, J. A.; Buder, I.; Bullock, E.; Davis, G.; Day, P. K.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Filippini, J. P.; Fliescher, S.; Golwala, S. R.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Karkare, K. S.; Kaufman, J. P.; Keating, B. G.; Kernasovskiy, S. A.; Kovac, J. M.; Kuo, C. L.; Leitch, E. M.; Llombart, N.; Lueker, M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn IV, R. W.; Orlando, A.; Pryke, C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Richter, S.; Schwarz, R.; Sheehy, C. D.; Staniszewski, Z. K.; Story, K. T.; Sudiwala, R. V.; Teply, G. P.; Tolan, J. E.; Turner, A. D.; Vieregg, A. G.; Wilson, P.; Wong, C. L.; Yoon, K. W.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 792, No. 1, 62, 01.09.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - BICEP2. II. Experiment and three-year data set

AU - Ade, P. A.R.

AU - Aikin, R. W.

AU - Amiri, M.

AU - Barkats, D.

AU - Benton, S. J.

AU - Bischoff, C. A.

AU - Bock, J. J.

AU - Brevik, J. A.

AU - Buder, I.

AU - Bullock, E.

AU - Davis, G.

AU - Day, P. K.

AU - Dowell, C. D.

AU - Duband, L.

AU - Filippini, J. P.

AU - Fliescher, S.

AU - Golwala, S. R.

AU - Halpern, M.

AU - Hasselfield, M.

AU - Hildebrandt, S. R.

AU - Hilton, G. C.

AU - Irwin, K. D.

AU - Karkare, K. S.

AU - Kaufman, J. P.

AU - Keating, B. G.

AU - Kernasovskiy, S. A.

AU - Kovac, J. M.

AU - Kuo, C. L.

AU - Leitch, E. M.

AU - Llombart, N.

AU - Lueker, M.

AU - Netterfield, C. B.

AU - Nguyen, H. T.

AU - O'Brient, R.

AU - Ogburn IV, R. W.

AU - Orlando, A.

AU - Pryke, C.

AU - Reintsema, C. D.

AU - Richter, S.

AU - Schwarz, R.

AU - Sheehy, C. D.

AU - Staniszewski, Z. K.

AU - Story, K. T.

AU - Sudiwala, R. V.

AU - Teply, G. P.

AU - Tolan, J. E.

AU - Turner, A. D.

AU - Vieregg, A. G.

AU - Wilson, P.

AU - Wong, C. L.

AU - Yoon, K. W.

PY - 2014/9/1

Y1 - 2014/9/1

N2 - We report on the design and performance of the BICEP2 instrument and on its three-year data set. BICEP2 was designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales of 1°-5°(ℓ = 40-200), near the expected peak of the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. Measuring B-modes requires dramatic improvements in sensitivity combined with exquisite control of systematics. The BICEP2 telescope observed from the South Pole with a 26 cm aperture and cold, on-axis, refractive optics. BICEP2 also adopted a new detector design in which beam-defining slot antenna arrays couple to transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, all fabricated on a common substrate. The antenna-coupled TES detectors supported scalable fabrication and multiplexed readout that allowed BICEP2 to achieve a high detector count of 500 bolometers at 150 GHz, giving unprecedented sensitivity to B-modes at degree angular scales. After optimization of detector and readout parameters, BICEP2 achieved an instrument noise-equivalent temperature of . The full data set reached Stokes Q and U map depths of 87.2 nK in square-degree pixels (5.′2 μK) over an effective area of 384 deg2 within a 1000 deg2 field. These are the deepest CMB polarization maps at degree angular scales to date. The power spectrum analysis presented in a companion paper has resulted in a significant detection of B-mode polarization at degree scales.

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Ade PAR, Aikin RW, Amiri M, Barkats D, Benton SJ, Bischoff CA et al. BICEP2. II. Experiment and three-year data set. Astrophysical Journal. 2014 Sep 1;792(1). 62. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/792/1/62