Bioavailability of β-carotene is lower in raw than in processed carrots and spinach in women

Cheryl L. Rock, Jennifer L. Lovalvo, Curt Emenhiser, Mack Ruffin, Shirley W. Flatt, Steven J. Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

197 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency usually rely on dietary provitamin A carotenoids to meet vitamin A needs, yet bioavailability of these compounds is influenced by several factors as follows: location in the plant source, the presence of other influencing dietary components, and type and extent of processing. The purpose of this study was to examine the plasma β-carotene response to raw vs. processed carrots and spinach. Subjects were eight healthy females aged 23-36 y who consumed ~9.3 mg β-carotene daily from either raw or thermally processed and pureed vegetables in two 4-wk treatment periods in a crossover study. Plasma concentrations of total, all- trans-, and cis-β-carotene and α-carotene were measured at base line and the end of each treatment period by using HPLC assays. Total and all-trans (but not cis) plasma β-carotene concentrations were significantly greater than base-line concentrations in the processed feeding period (P < 0.04) and tended to be greater in the raw feeding period (P = 0.08). Daily consumption of processed carrots and spinach over a 4-wk period produced an increase in plasma β-carotene concentration that averaged three times that associated with consumption of the same amount of β-carotene from these vegetables in the raw form (P = 0.09). Increased cis isomers provided in the processed vegetables did not result in significantly greater plasma cis-β-carotene isomer concentrations. These results suggest that isomerization of β- carotene by heat treatment does not negate the enhanced β-carotene uptake associated with consuming commercially processed vegetables compared with raw vegetables.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)913-916
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume128
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 1998

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Daucus carota
Spinacia oleracea
Carotenoids
carotenes
spinach
carrots
Biological Availability
bioavailability
Vegetables
raw vegetables
vegetables
Vitamin A Deficiency
vitamin A deficiency
isomerization
at-risk population
Vitamin A
Cross-Over Studies
vitamin A
isomers
carotenoids

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Rock, C. L., Lovalvo, J. L., Emenhiser, C., Ruffin, M., Flatt, S. W., & Schwartz, S. J. (1998). Bioavailability of β-carotene is lower in raw than in processed carrots and spinach in women. Journal of Nutrition, 128(5), 913-916.
Rock, Cheryl L. ; Lovalvo, Jennifer L. ; Emenhiser, Curt ; Ruffin, Mack ; Flatt, Shirley W. ; Schwartz, Steven J. / Bioavailability of β-carotene is lower in raw than in processed carrots and spinach in women. In: Journal of Nutrition. 1998 ; Vol. 128, No. 5. pp. 913-916.
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Rock, CL, Lovalvo, JL, Emenhiser, C, Ruffin, M, Flatt, SW & Schwartz, SJ 1998, 'Bioavailability of β-carotene is lower in raw than in processed carrots and spinach in women', Journal of Nutrition, vol. 128, no. 5, pp. 913-916.

Bioavailability of β-carotene is lower in raw than in processed carrots and spinach in women. / Rock, Cheryl L.; Lovalvo, Jennifer L.; Emenhiser, Curt; Ruffin, Mack; Flatt, Shirley W.; Schwartz, Steven J.

In: Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 128, No. 5, 01.05.1998, p. 913-916.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Bioavailability of β-carotene is lower in raw than in processed carrots and spinach in women

AU - Rock, Cheryl L.

AU - Lovalvo, Jennifer L.

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AU - Schwartz, Steven J.

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N2 - Populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency usually rely on dietary provitamin A carotenoids to meet vitamin A needs, yet bioavailability of these compounds is influenced by several factors as follows: location in the plant source, the presence of other influencing dietary components, and type and extent of processing. The purpose of this study was to examine the plasma β-carotene response to raw vs. processed carrots and spinach. Subjects were eight healthy females aged 23-36 y who consumed ~9.3 mg β-carotene daily from either raw or thermally processed and pureed vegetables in two 4-wk treatment periods in a crossover study. Plasma concentrations of total, all- trans-, and cis-β-carotene and α-carotene were measured at base line and the end of each treatment period by using HPLC assays. Total and all-trans (but not cis) plasma β-carotene concentrations were significantly greater than base-line concentrations in the processed feeding period (P < 0.04) and tended to be greater in the raw feeding period (P = 0.08). Daily consumption of processed carrots and spinach over a 4-wk period produced an increase in plasma β-carotene concentration that averaged three times that associated with consumption of the same amount of β-carotene from these vegetables in the raw form (P = 0.09). Increased cis isomers provided in the processed vegetables did not result in significantly greater plasma cis-β-carotene isomer concentrations. These results suggest that isomerization of β- carotene by heat treatment does not negate the enhanced β-carotene uptake associated with consuming commercially processed vegetables compared with raw vegetables.

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Rock CL, Lovalvo JL, Emenhiser C, Ruffin M, Flatt SW, Schwartz SJ. Bioavailability of β-carotene is lower in raw than in processed carrots and spinach in women. Journal of Nutrition. 1998 May 1;128(5):913-916.