Finding ischemic stroke biomarker is highly desirable because it can improve diagnosis even before a patient arrives to the hospital. Metabolome is one of new technologies that help to find biomarkers. Most metabolome-related ischemic stroke studies were done in Asia and had exploratory designs. Although failed to find specific biomarkers, they discovered several important metabolite-stroke associations which belong to three pathophysiological mechanisms: Excitotoxicity with activation of glutamate, resulting in the increase of glutamate derivatives proline and pyroglutamate; Oxidative stress with production of free radicals and perturbed concentrations of uric acid, matrix metalloproteinase-9, branch-chained amino acids, sphingolipids, homocysteine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, nitric oxide and folate cycle metabolites; and Stroke mediated inflammation, affecting phospholipid metabolism with perturbed levels of lysophosphatidylethanolamine and lysophosphatidylcholine. The discovered metabolite-stroke associations need further evaluation in prospective, high-quality studies with patients matched for age, risk factors, and medications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine