Urinary tract infection (UTI) is among the most common bacterial infections and poses a significant healthcare burden. The standard culture-based diagnosis of UTI has a typical delay of two to three days. In the absence of definitive microbiological diagnosis at the point of care, physicians frequently initiate empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, and this has contributed to the emergence of resistant pathogens. Biosensors are emerging as a powerful diagnostic platform for infectious diseases. Paralleling how blood glucose sensors revolutionized the management of diabetes, and how pregnancy tests are now conducted in the home, biosensors are poised to improve UTI diagnosis significantly. Biosensors are amenable to integration with microfluidic technology for point-of-care (POC) applications. This review focuses on promising biosensor technology for UTI diagnosis, including pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and hurdles to be surpassed in the translation of biosensor technology from bench to bedside.
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