BK virus nephropathy is a challenging clinical problem in kidney transplant recipients with wide range of surveillance and management practices, based on individual experience. BK virus reactivation in kidney transplant recipients can result in BK virus nephropathy and graft loss. The most effective strategy for early diagnosis and treatment of BK virus nephropathy is regular monitoring for BK virus, currently achieved by quantification of viral DNA in blood by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Immunosuppression reduction remains the mainstay of treatment; however, viral clearance is often followed by acute rejection, likely secondary to a delay between immune reconstitution and viral clearance. Impaired cell-mediated immune response to BK virus has been shown to correlate with progression to BK virus nephropathy, while reconstitution of this response correlates with resolution of nephropathy. There is recent research to support monitoring BK virus-specific cell-mediated immune response as a predictor of disease progression and resolution. In this article, we review the current concepts and recent developments in understanding BK virusassociated disease in the context of kidney transplant and outline areas for future research.
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