TY - JOUR

T1 - Black-hole models in loop quantum gravity

AU - Bojowald, Martin

N1 - Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by NSF grant number PHY-1912168.

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - Dynamical black-hole scenarios have been developed in loop quantum gravity in various ways, combining results from mini and midisuperspace models. In the past, the underlying geometry of space-time has often been expressed in terms of line elements with metric components that differ from the classical solutions of general relativity, motivated by modified equations of motion and constraints. However, recent results have shown by explicit calculations that most of these constructions violate general covariance and slicing independence. The proposed line elements and black-hole models are therefore ruled out. The only known possibility to escape this sentence is to derive not only modified metric components but also a new space-time structure which is covariant in a generalized sense. Formally, such a derivation is made available by an analysis of the constraints of canonical gravity, which generate deformations of hypersurfaces in space-time, or generalized versions if the constraints are consistently modified. A generic consequence of consistent modifications in effective theories suggested by loop quantum gravity is signature change at high density. Signature change is an important ingredient in long-term models of black holes that aim to determine what might happen after a black hole has evaporated. Because this effect changes the causal structure of space-time, it has crucial implications for black-hole models that have been missed in several older constructions, for instance in models based on bouncing black-hole interiors. Such models are ruled out by signature change even if their underlying space-times are made consistent using generalized covariance. The causal nature of signature change brings in a new internal consistency condition, given by the requirement of deterministic behavior at low curvature. Even a causally disconnected interior transition, opening back up into the former exterior as some kind of astrophysical white hole, is then ruled out. New versions consistent with both generalized covariance and low-curvature determinism are introduced here, showing a remarkable similarity with models developed in other approaches, such as the final-state proposal or the no-transition principle obtained from the gauge-gravity correspondence.

AB - Dynamical black-hole scenarios have been developed in loop quantum gravity in various ways, combining results from mini and midisuperspace models. In the past, the underlying geometry of space-time has often been expressed in terms of line elements with metric components that differ from the classical solutions of general relativity, motivated by modified equations of motion and constraints. However, recent results have shown by explicit calculations that most of these constructions violate general covariance and slicing independence. The proposed line elements and black-hole models are therefore ruled out. The only known possibility to escape this sentence is to derive not only modified metric components but also a new space-time structure which is covariant in a generalized sense. Formally, such a derivation is made available by an analysis of the constraints of canonical gravity, which generate deformations of hypersurfaces in space-time, or generalized versions if the constraints are consistently modified. A generic consequence of consistent modifications in effective theories suggested by loop quantum gravity is signature change at high density. Signature change is an important ingredient in long-term models of black holes that aim to determine what might happen after a black hole has evaporated. Because this effect changes the causal structure of space-time, it has crucial implications for black-hole models that have been missed in several older constructions, for instance in models based on bouncing black-hole interiors. Such models are ruled out by signature change even if their underlying space-times are made consistent using generalized covariance. The causal nature of signature change brings in a new internal consistency condition, given by the requirement of deterministic behavior at low curvature. Even a causally disconnected interior transition, opening back up into the former exterior as some kind of astrophysical white hole, is then ruled out. New versions consistent with both generalized covariance and low-curvature determinism are introduced here, showing a remarkable similarity with models developed in other approaches, such as the final-state proposal or the no-transition principle obtained from the gauge-gravity correspondence.

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U2 - 10.3390/UNIVERSE6080125

DO - 10.3390/UNIVERSE6080125

M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:85091962750

VL - 6

JO - Universe

JF - Universe

SN - 2218-1997

IS - 8

M1 - 125

ER -