In vivo experiments were undertaken to study the transport of metal ions away from the intramuscular (IM) injection site and to study the binding of the metals to blood cells. Hamsters were injected intramuscularly with metal salts or with corrosion products generated by fretting corrosion of 316 LVM stainless steel or MP‐35N plates and screws. The animals were bled at 0 time, and 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, and 96 h after injection. The concentration of nickel, cobalt, and chromium in the serum, attached to red cells, and attached to white cells was determined. This study showed that metals are rapidly transported from the intramuscular site with high levels in the blood by 2 h. The level of metal in the blood varied considerably with nickel being transported in high concentration to the blood, chromium with a valence of 6+ being transported to the blood, and cobalt and chromium with a valence of 3+ being transported less to the blood. The highest amount of cell binding was observed with chromium 6+. Cobalt showed negligible binding to blood cells. When all the metal salts injected together were compared with the individual salts injected alone, there was no difference. This indicated that the each metal behaves independently of the presence of the others.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering