Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) and obesity are independent risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to determine if obesity modifies risk for CKD outcomes after AKI. Methods: This prospective multisite cohort study followed adult survivors after hospitalization, with or without AKI. The primary outcome was a combined CKD event of incident CKD, progression of CKD and kidney failure, examined using time-to-event Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for diabetes status, age, pre-existing CKD, cardiovascular disease status and intensive care unit admission, and stratified by study center. Body mass index (BMI) was added as an interaction term to examine effect modification by body size. Results: The cohort included 769 participants with AKI and 769 matched controls. After median follow-up of 4.3 years, among AKI survivors, the rate of the combined CKD outcome was 84.7 per1000-person-years with BMI ≥30 kg/m2, 56.4 per 1000-person-years with BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2, and 72.6 per 1000-person-years with BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2. AKI was associated with a higher risk of combined CKD outcomes; adjusted-HR 2.43 (95%CI 1.87–3.16), with no evidence that this was modified by BMI (p for interaction = 0.3). After adjustment for competing risk of death, AKI remained associated with a higher risk of the combined CKD outcome (subdistribution-HR 2.27, 95%CI 1.76–2.92) and similarly, there was no detectable effect of BMI modifying this risk. Conclusions: In this post-hospitalization cohort, we found no evidence for obesity modifying the association between AKI and development or progression of CKD.
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