Infection with bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) or BPV2 induces fibropapillomas in cows and skin sarcoids in horses. Prophylactic vaccination targeting BPV1 and BPV2 may reduce the incidence of these economically important diseases. The L1 major capsid proteins of BPV1 and BPV2 were expressed in Sf-9 insect cells and both self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs). Using conformation-dependent monoclonal antibodies (mAb) both type-specific and shared epitopes were detected. Antisera were raised against BPV1 or BPV2 VLP using alum adjuvant, and their (cross)neutralization capacity was tested by C127 neutralization assays using native BPV1 and BPV2 virions, or by BPV1 pseudovirion assay. Antisera induced by either VLP vaccine were able to robustly (cross-)neutralize heterologous as well as homologous types, indicating that BPV1 and BPV2 are closely related serotypes. These results suggest that a monovalent BPV1 (or BPV2) VLP vaccine may potentially protect against both BPV1 and BPV2 infections and associated diseases.
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