We examine the shape deformation and breakup of air bubbles and viscous drops moving through vertical cylindrical capillaries under the action of pressure and/or buoyancy forces. Experimental observations of fluid particle shape are reported over a wide range of particle sizes and capillary numbers in a variety of two-phase systems. Four different modes of breakup are identified, and the critical conditions for the onset of various modes are examined. It is found that buoyancy forces can have a stabilizing effect on the breakup mechanism observed by Olbricht and Kung [Phys. Fluids 4, 134, (1992)] for low viscosity-ratio drops, wherein a growing indentation at the trailing end of the drop develops into a penetrating jet of outer phase fluid.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computational Mechanics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes