Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of nanostructured maleated polypropylene/polycarbonate blends prepared by in situ polymerization and compatibilization

Samy Madbouly, Joshua U. Otaigbe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The miscibility and molecular dynamics of nanostructured maleated polypropylene (mPP)/polycarbonate (PC) blends prepared by in situ polymerization of macrocyclic carbonates with polypropylene modified with 0.5 wt% of maleic anhydride-reactive groups were investigated over a wide range of frequencies (10-2-0.5 × 107 Hz) at different constant temperatures using broadband dielectric spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The molecular dynamics of the glass relaxation process of the blend (α-relaxation process) appeared at a lower temperature range compared with that of the pure PC. This shift in the molecular relaxation process is attributed to the partial miscibility of the two polymer components in the blends as previously confirmed by the morphology via STEM. Nanoscale morphologies with average domain diameters as small as 50 nm were obtained for the different blend compositions studied. The STEM photographs show that the graft mPP-g-PC prefers to locate at the interfaces as previously reported. The relaxation spectrum of pure PC and mPP/PC blends was resolved into α- and β-relaxation processes using the Havriliak-Negami equation and ionic conductivity. The dielectric relaxation parameters, such as relaxation peak broadness, maximum frequency, fmax, and dielectric strength, Δε (for the α- and β-relaxation processes), were found to be blend composition dependent. The kinetics of the α-relaxation processes of the blends were well described by Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation. The local process of PC was resolved into two relaxation processes β1 and β2, associated with the carbonyl groups' motion and the combined motions of carbonyl and phenylene groups, respectively. Only β2 shifted to lower frequency in the blend while β1 was relatively not affected by blending. The electric modulus of the blends was used to get a sufficient resolution of the different relaxation processes in the samples, i.e., α-, β-relaxation processes, ionic conductivity, and interfacial polarization. In addition, the blending method used was found to increase the d.c. conductivity without affecting the charge carrier transport mechanism, making it possible to develop novel polymer blends with tunable dielectric properties and morphology from existing polymers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4097-4107
Number of pages11
JournalPolymer
Volume48
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 29 2007

Fingerprint

polycarbonate
Dielectric spectroscopy
Compatibilizers
Polypropylenes
Relaxation processes
Polymer blends
Polycarbonates
Polymerization
Electron microscopes
Ionic conductivity
Scanning
Molecular dynamics
Polymers
Solubility
Maleic Anhydrides
Carrier transport
Dielectric relaxation
Carbonates
Maleic anhydride
Charge carriers

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

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title = "Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of nanostructured maleated polypropylene/polycarbonate blends prepared by in situ polymerization and compatibilization",
abstract = "The miscibility and molecular dynamics of nanostructured maleated polypropylene (mPP)/polycarbonate (PC) blends prepared by in situ polymerization of macrocyclic carbonates with polypropylene modified with 0.5 wt{\%} of maleic anhydride-reactive groups were investigated over a wide range of frequencies (10-2-0.5 × 107 Hz) at different constant temperatures using broadband dielectric spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The molecular dynamics of the glass relaxation process of the blend (α-relaxation process) appeared at a lower temperature range compared with that of the pure PC. This shift in the molecular relaxation process is attributed to the partial miscibility of the two polymer components in the blends as previously confirmed by the morphology via STEM. Nanoscale morphologies with average domain diameters as small as 50 nm were obtained for the different blend compositions studied. The STEM photographs show that the graft mPP-g-PC prefers to locate at the interfaces as previously reported. The relaxation spectrum of pure PC and mPP/PC blends was resolved into α- and β-relaxation processes using the Havriliak-Negami equation and ionic conductivity. The dielectric relaxation parameters, such as relaxation peak broadness, maximum frequency, fmax, and dielectric strength, Δε (for the α- and β-relaxation processes), were found to be blend composition dependent. The kinetics of the α-relaxation processes of the blends were well described by Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation. The local process of PC was resolved into two relaxation processes β1 and β2, associated with the carbonyl groups' motion and the combined motions of carbonyl and phenylene groups, respectively. Only β2 shifted to lower frequency in the blend while β1 was relatively not affected by blending. The electric modulus of the blends was used to get a sufficient resolution of the different relaxation processes in the samples, i.e., α-, β-relaxation processes, ionic conductivity, and interfacial polarization. In addition, the blending method used was found to increase the d.c. conductivity without affecting the charge carrier transport mechanism, making it possible to develop novel polymer blends with tunable dielectric properties and morphology from existing polymers.",
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Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of nanostructured maleated polypropylene/polycarbonate blends prepared by in situ polymerization and compatibilization. / Madbouly, Samy; Otaigbe, Joshua U.

In: Polymer, Vol. 48, No. 14, 29.06.2007, p. 4097-4107.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - The miscibility and molecular dynamics of nanostructured maleated polypropylene (mPP)/polycarbonate (PC) blends prepared by in situ polymerization of macrocyclic carbonates with polypropylene modified with 0.5 wt% of maleic anhydride-reactive groups were investigated over a wide range of frequencies (10-2-0.5 × 107 Hz) at different constant temperatures using broadband dielectric spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The molecular dynamics of the glass relaxation process of the blend (α-relaxation process) appeared at a lower temperature range compared with that of the pure PC. This shift in the molecular relaxation process is attributed to the partial miscibility of the two polymer components in the blends as previously confirmed by the morphology via STEM. Nanoscale morphologies with average domain diameters as small as 50 nm were obtained for the different blend compositions studied. The STEM photographs show that the graft mPP-g-PC prefers to locate at the interfaces as previously reported. The relaxation spectrum of pure PC and mPP/PC blends was resolved into α- and β-relaxation processes using the Havriliak-Negami equation and ionic conductivity. The dielectric relaxation parameters, such as relaxation peak broadness, maximum frequency, fmax, and dielectric strength, Δε (for the α- and β-relaxation processes), were found to be blend composition dependent. The kinetics of the α-relaxation processes of the blends were well described by Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation. The local process of PC was resolved into two relaxation processes β1 and β2, associated with the carbonyl groups' motion and the combined motions of carbonyl and phenylene groups, respectively. Only β2 shifted to lower frequency in the blend while β1 was relatively not affected by blending. The electric modulus of the blends was used to get a sufficient resolution of the different relaxation processes in the samples, i.e., α-, β-relaxation processes, ionic conductivity, and interfacial polarization. In addition, the blending method used was found to increase the d.c. conductivity without affecting the charge carrier transport mechanism, making it possible to develop novel polymer blends with tunable dielectric properties and morphology from existing polymers.

AB - The miscibility and molecular dynamics of nanostructured maleated polypropylene (mPP)/polycarbonate (PC) blends prepared by in situ polymerization of macrocyclic carbonates with polypropylene modified with 0.5 wt% of maleic anhydride-reactive groups were investigated over a wide range of frequencies (10-2-0.5 × 107 Hz) at different constant temperatures using broadband dielectric spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The molecular dynamics of the glass relaxation process of the blend (α-relaxation process) appeared at a lower temperature range compared with that of the pure PC. This shift in the molecular relaxation process is attributed to the partial miscibility of the two polymer components in the blends as previously confirmed by the morphology via STEM. Nanoscale morphologies with average domain diameters as small as 50 nm were obtained for the different blend compositions studied. The STEM photographs show that the graft mPP-g-PC prefers to locate at the interfaces as previously reported. The relaxation spectrum of pure PC and mPP/PC blends was resolved into α- and β-relaxation processes using the Havriliak-Negami equation and ionic conductivity. The dielectric relaxation parameters, such as relaxation peak broadness, maximum frequency, fmax, and dielectric strength, Δε (for the α- and β-relaxation processes), were found to be blend composition dependent. The kinetics of the α-relaxation processes of the blends were well described by Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation. The local process of PC was resolved into two relaxation processes β1 and β2, associated with the carbonyl groups' motion and the combined motions of carbonyl and phenylene groups, respectively. Only β2 shifted to lower frequency in the blend while β1 was relatively not affected by blending. The electric modulus of the blends was used to get a sufficient resolution of the different relaxation processes in the samples, i.e., α-, β-relaxation processes, ionic conductivity, and interfacial polarization. In addition, the blending method used was found to increase the d.c. conductivity without affecting the charge carrier transport mechanism, making it possible to develop novel polymer blends with tunable dielectric properties and morphology from existing polymers.

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